• SOCRATES VOL 6 NO 2 (2018) ISSUE JUNE COVER Issue - June
    Vol 6 No 2 (2018)

    This issue of SOCRATES has been divided into two sections.

    The first section of this issue is English Literature.

    The first paper of this section has been authored by Sara Setayesh. This paper reviews ‘Blasted’, the first play by the British author Sarah Kane. The paper analyses the Ian and Cate’s psychological behavior and their romantic relationship portrayed in the play, as important implications for psychoanalytic criticism. The second paper of this section has been authored by Muhammad Yar Tanvir and Dr Ali Usman Saleem. It evaluates the power, privilege or right enjoyed by the men in Pakistani Patriarchal society as reflected in ‘Attar of Roses and Other Stories’ of Pakistan, a collection by Tahira Naqvi. The objective of this paper is to pinpoint the social and political position of patriarchal society through which woman subjugation by men becomes a power, a privilege or a right to be exercised. Radical Feminism will serve as a theoretical and conceptual framework for the apt exploration of the problematic.

    The second section of this issue is Philosophy.

    The first paper of this section has been authored by Maftouni Nadia and Mahmoud Nuri. It analyses the Farabi’s philosophy (utopia) and concluded that the public is not used to implement their rational faculty and they cannot perceive the rational happiness directly. So the rational happiness should be presented to their imagination, and thus, the artist of the utopia makes images of the rational happiness using sensible and imaginary forms.

    The second paper of this section has been authored by Smrutipriya Pattnaik and C Upendra. The paper critically addresses the fall narrative of the narrative of the failure of the communist experiment. It claims that if the idea of “return to socialism” makes no sense, equally is senseless the triumphalism debate of liberal-capitalism.

    The third paper of this section has been authored by Lidija Kovacheva. This paper provides a comparative interpretation of the Ancient Greek image of Hermes as a mythological figure with the image of Archangel Michael as a highly revered Orthodox saint in modern Macedonian society. The goal of this research is to show the similarities and the differences between these two characters and how these images are understood today in modern society.


    Vol 6 No 1 (2018)



    In this age of so many ‘posts’, be it postmodernism, post structuralism or any other, postcolonialism is one that has been greatly explored, used and even misused. I say ‘misused’ because it is fodder for thought, whether a plethora of political movements and cultural/literary productions located outside the West, however diverse, can all be assembled under the broad umbrella of postcolonialism? Do they all necessarily stem from their experience of being colonized by the West? Works that are broadly classified under the broad banner of ‘postcolonialism’ are actually, vastly varied in terms of content, style or point of view. The one common thread which therefore, binds them together is the experience of pain, marginalization, insult, exclusion and the resulting rebellion and resistance, all of which is the suffering progeny of the tyrant stepmother, colonialism.

          Postcolonialism is a phenomenon that refers to the interactions between the West and the non West ‘other’, back from the sixteenth century to the present day. It determines how such experiences altered and shaped both parties. The voices in response to colonial oppression, whether loud and open, or subtle and hidden, were always those of protest and opposition. While ‘postcolonialism’ is a theory, sometimes working therapeutically to recall deliberately forgotten anguished memories of colonial brutalization, ‘postcoloniality’ is a condition, plagued by an amnesia of these painful experiences, guiding the subjects of postcoloniality to accept the negatives of this condition and proceed to shape and embrace their identities.

         Finding a creative voice, the ‘colonised’, the ‘victim’, the ‘oppressed’, the ‘subaltern’, the ‘slave’, wrests his turn to speak up and speak out. The papers selected for this issue have presented numerous examples of the individual’s response to the challenges and obstacles thrown his/her way in a postcolonial scenario. The victim refuses to remain a victim. He struggles, fights and emerges victorious, carving a niche for him/herself in his/her world, a world that has suffered the pangs of the colonial experience.

            Through the exploration of postcoloniality, which is more of a cultural, linguistic, literary and creative phenomenon, we find that a strange grey area has been generated. On the one hand it has created, (like Nyasha, in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s novella Nervous Conditions, presented in one of the selected papers) ‘partly colonised’ individuals’ who cannot shed this effect even if they want to. The author of the paper, a “twenty-first century post-colonial Indian student”, notes that “Africa and India share many similarities in relation to tribal culture, orature and community-based living.”

            English is a language that cuts across territorial boundaries. As a world of seven vast continents shrinks into a global village, the concept of the chained, pained, colonized individual fades into oblivion. So, on the other hand, the current generation of the postcolonised has snatched the oppressor’s sword away, wielding it now as a counter weapon, as it were. It articulates in the language of the ‘master’ with a charming finesse, creates literature through it, with an unmatched power and passion. It struts about in ‘European’ attire and has adopted the privileges of that lifestyle with considerable ease. The subaltern, the victim has risen from the ashes as a glorious Phoenix. It spreads its wings, it soars. And, it sings.

          The paper Causeway to the Cosways studies Jean Rhys’ novel Wide Sargasso Sea, which has also been picturesquely  converted into a movie and often been studied in comparison with Bronte’s Jane Eyre’s. The paper explores how the novel moves on from a “reverse Bildungsroman” towards a Kunstlerroman.

          Salman Rushdie’s seventh novel, The Ground Beneath Her Feet, in which the mythic mode has been applied, and which I have myself examined as a postmodern text (in my doctoral thesis), has been studied in one of the selected papers with particular reference to the transnational migration of its protagonists, “which is essentially a postcolonial factor”. The author discusses how migration of individuals to different countries across the globe blurs the East- West frontiers and results in producing a new set of socio-cultural beliefs and different social expectations.

          One of the contributors to this edition has taken up the study of two novels of Chinua Achebe, a very pertinent writer in terms of postcolonial exploration. He has shown in Achebe’s novels Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease, the plight of the Nigerian people as they face the painful onslaught of an alien culture. Significantly, both the negative as well as the positive side of the pre and post colonized worlds are depicted. “Achebe’s protagonists were able to retain a sense of their pre colonial glory” as opposed to what Joseph Conrad documents about Africa in his monumental text Heart of Darkness.

         Another paper presents how the novel White Teeth by Zadie Smith deals with the “contemporary ethical issues surrounding genetic testing” bringing unethical scientific practices on colonized races into focus. The writer has made an attempt in this paper to put his views alongside the lectures of Michel Foucault on biopolitics. It sends a powerful message to the readers about the impact of such policies over the future of science, education and research.

          This special edition had also hoped to include some creative writing which has the fervor of the postcolonial spirit at its core. Unfortunately, we received only one poem. The poet shows how the spirit of the magnificent, tribal Africa reels and is crushed under heartless colonial dominance. But it hints that independence and freedom, for them are not elusive. 

          I sign off with these lines from the faltering pen of a young, amateur poet (Afreen Iqbal Siddiqui, B.A. III yr. I.T.College, Lucknow), who has poignantly captured this strident, undefeated spirit in the following lines of her poem A sadistic heart:


    ….what an inhumane humanity

    Made them call my nation’s citizens “sub-humans” with utter brutality.

    “Bharat” losing its indigenous industry

    Was all this at the cost of their poverty?

    How could one not rant on

    The Queen wearing a looted diamond

    From India on her crown!


    Issue Editor

    Dr. Shazia Siddiqui Khan   Head-Dept. of English, Mumtaz P.G.College, Lucknow, India  


  • Vol 5 No 3 and 4 (2017): Issue-September and December Issue-September and December
    Vol 5 No 3 and 4 (2017)

    About this issue:

    This issue of Socrates has been divided into three sections.

    The first section is English Language & Literature.  The paper authored by Mounir Sanhaji discusses the construction of ‘otherness’ in media discourse that is meant to legitimize and naturalize the reproduction of the ideology of opposition that widens the gap between the identification of “Self” and “Other”.

    The second section of this issue is Philosophy.  The Paper authored by Nadia Maftouni has conceptualized Scientart” and has discussed the interaction between the worlds of art and science.  The Paper authored by Dabbagh Hossein has intended to propose a critical leap in Persian music which leads to the creation of three different paradigms in Persian music. The Paper authored by Hareesh Alikkal Gopalakrishnan and Upendra C sketches out the intractable nature of species through a historical account of the species problem. Through this paper, they have tried to decipher a ‘common thread’ that, perhaps, binds all our ideas of species together. The Paper authored by Tang Man-to aims at explaining the ambiguous meaning of forgetting in Meno, Phaedo, Theaetetus and Philebus. It concludes by drawing attention to Paul Ricoeur’s critical examination of Plato’s philosophy of forgetting that he fails to provide an effective resolution to the ordinary forgetting as an attack on the reliability of memory.  The Paper authored by Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena concluded that the Being cannot be localized, it is infinite and continuous; the Being bears the cosmic code. Therefore, existence basically shares the same cosmic information because everything was thought for its flutter to eternity. The Paper authored by Alexandros Schismenos illuminates the importance of time for philosophical thought and, more generally, for human social and psychical life, in the context of the ontology of Cornelius Castoriadis. Castoriadis, who asserted that “being is time – and not in the horizon of time”, correlated history to society and being to temporality within the social-historical stratum, the ontological plane created by human existence, where “existence is signification”. The Paper authored by Miquel Ricart is primarily in Spanish with it’s abstract in English and Spanish. This paper aims to interpret and comment on some of Fernando Vallejo's thoughts contained in his novel El Desbarrancadero. It says that the Colombian author's text includes deep reflections on essential issues of human existence and their fundamental circumstances. Throughout the pages of El Desbarrancadero, ideas about life are exposed in their most critical aspect, masterfully described by Vallejo.

    The third section of this issue is Political Science. The Paper authored by Manas Roy enquires into the challenges in front of the Government in India for the successful implementation of E-governance services. It also tends to find out the potential opportunities available.


  • Vol 5 No 2 (2017): Issue - June Issue - June
    Vol 5 No 2 (2017)

    About this issue:

    This issue of Socrates has been divided into five sections.

    The first section is Language & Literature- English.

    The paper authored by Mehnaz Khan and Hasnain Mashood Ali applies Goffman’s model as a comprehensive approach to analyze the data to understand the role of health in identity formation. The findings examined within the context of ideological and cultural background and interpreted in the light of Althusser’s (1971) ideological framework. The paper concludes by stating that identity is the product of social relationships implicitly formed in the ideological background and is a source of motivation and expectations to transform one into social being capable of expressive control.

    The paper authored by Amaladhas Dr J. Black analyses the consciousness that grew out of the unrelieved suffering and psychological traumas of a group of people who were subjected to overt and covert racism in the USA for about four centuries.

    The second section of this issue is Psychology.

    The Paper authored by Ioanna C. Bitchava, Paleologou Angie-M. P, Chrousos George P., Artemiadis Artemios K. and Darviri Christina is an innovative quasi-experimental study, whose core aim was not only to investigate the role of Stress and Stress-Management on the Physical, Mental, and Cognitive Health of first-year University Students during the transition period into the tertiary education system (especially in the contemporary Greek Society), but also to apply an innovative Stress Management Technique [based on the Ancient Greek Philosophy - with contemporary successful effects], Pythagorean Self-Awareness –comparatively to the worldwide "classic" Stress-Management Techniques – for the first time worldwide into this target-group, as well. This paper is an issue of great importance.

    The third section of this issue is Sociology.  

    The paper authored by Neha Singh and Dr Neeraj Mishra explores the nuances that industrialization is mired with, in relation to the rivers, associated large infrastructure and rivers attributed sacredness. The paper uses the case of river Kshipra flowing in the city of Ujjain to explain the shifting attribution of ‘sacred’ from natural things like rivers to materialistic things like money. The paper discusses the change in the significance of river during a world famous festival of Hindus for holy dip Simhastha. The paper explains the shift in focus of Simhastha from holy dip to crowd control, space allocation, crass commercialisation and unchecked competition. It explains using the theory of sacred and profane of Durkheim and Eliade, how in the modern time's secularisation of religion and sacralization of secular has created the sacred/profane distinction which is making the rivers only the source for consumption forgetting their actual significance.

    The fourth section of this issue is Politics, Law and Governance.  

    The paper authored by Dr Adesanya Olusegun Paul and Olominu Tomi explores some of the responsible variables are a mind-body problem, alternative thinking, and poverty to mention a few. These variables are the identified drivers of dimensions of insecurity and/or crises that are witnessed in both countries. Given this, the study demonstrates the role of the fugitive youths in the abating terror attacks at the frontiers and within some regions of Nigeria and Cameroun. Also, the study argues that priority should be accorded to the factors inducing fugitive youths to embrace anti-social/anti-societal behaviours, especially terrorism within the Nigeria and Cameroun.

    The fifth section of this issue is Digital government/E-government/Electronic government/Online government.  The paper authored by Alsaeed Abraheem and Dr Carl Adams undertakes a comparison of eGov strategies among countries at different levels of instability. It highlights the different approaches for implementing activities, and thus directs policy makers in highly unstable societies to important aspects and to embrace gaps during the implementation process.  Consequently, the lessons learned by adopting best practice from different contexts enhances the process of activities’ development in an unstable environment. This paper aims to emphasise on the factors that influenced strategic planning in societies with different levels of stability to adopt eService successfully.  This comparison study explores the eService strategies among three cases namely: eGov Strategy in Syria, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The result reveals the approaches that each government had adopted in order to reach their eGov potential. We apply the Reinventing Government approach by Osborne and Gaebler (1992) as a theoretical framework. By using their ten principles of transforming governments this provides understanding about the context and issues of providing eGov services within the three case studies and to what degree each case strategy has an influence on the activities implemented.

    The paper authored by Dr Tetiana Fesenko and Dr Galyna Fesenko aims to outline the role of ICT in urban management. The digital segment is presented as significant for making cities sustainable, and for expanding access to basic services for large numbers of people. The matrix of ICT-tools in relation to sustainable cities development targets is developed. The comparative review of Digital City, Intelligent City, and Smart City is provided. The municipal e-government data of international ratings are analyzed with the special focus on aspects of online services management. The existing digital gaps between cities are pointed out in terms of e-governance maturity. It is proposed the maturity model of the municipal digital office, which it consists eight levels of the functional responsibility for urban online services development.


  • Vol 5 No 1 (2017): Issue - March Issue - March
    Vol 5 No 1 (2017)

    About this issue:

    This issue of SOCRATES has been divided into four sections. The first section of this issue is Language & Literature- Persian, which contains an article authored by Nazia Jafri. In this paper, hidden corners and unfamiliar life and priceless works of Hussain Quli Mastan, who was the the first Iranian photo-journalist, has been introduced.

    The second section of this issue if Language and Literature-English. Paper authored by Dr. P. Saravanakumar studies the use of a mask in Girish Karnad’s play “Tughlaq.” Tughlaq is the most complex and complicated of Girish Karnad’s works. Paper authored by R. Kaliyaperumal highlights the Science and Technology in Dan Brown’s Digital Fortress. Paper authored by Vincent P discusses Black Community Voice Echoes on Eradicate of Identity in Toni Morrison’s Novel Home. While exploring the twenty-first-century work Home we find the voices, which indicates the voice of the colonised people. A deep study of this novel exposes the events and happenings at the time of colonisation. It also exposes their emotions and feelings.

    The third section of this issue is Philosophy. Paper authored by Giuseppe Gagliano intends to identify several key concepts that emerge from an analysis of Aron’s acclaimed work on the role played by Marxist-Leninist ideology in the development of the 20th-century philosophic thought. Paper authored by Rocco Angelo Astore is an argument in favor of the Universal health care.

    The fourth section of this issue is Politics, Law and Governance. Paper authored by Dr. Galyna Fesenko and Dr. Tetiana Fesenko aims to outline the role of e-democracy within the setting of the Eastern Partnership program. The article provides the comparative review of E-Government progress in six EaP countries in 2009 – 2016. Paper authored by Dr. Surendra Misra is related to Governance, Good Governance and development of different sectors in India. Paper authored by Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dwivedi focuses on the E-Governance initiatives that have changed the life style of rural citizens and in which the citizens derive benefit through direct transactions with the services provided by the union and the provincial governments. The paper also highlights the variety of constraints in implementing the E-governance projects in rural areas.

  • Vol 4 No 4 (2016): Issue - December Issue - December
    Vol 4 No 4 (2016)

    About this issue:

    This issue of Socrates has been divided into three sections.

    The first section is Language & Literature- Persian. The paper authored by Nazia Jafri critically analyses the novel Gunah-e-Muqaddas. This novel represents the Political and social situation in Iran during the Pahlavi.

    The second section of this issue is Philosophy. The Paper authored by Olivera Z. Mijuskovic, critically analyses Aristotle's concept of the State. The word policy comes from the ancient Greek word "polis" and from it created another word "politeia" which refers to a lifestyle and "a general thing of all citizens". "Bios politikos" or practical life was related to life in community with other people. The definition of man as a political being (physei zoon politikon) comes from Aristotle. The paper authored by Giuseppe Gagliano proposes a historical analysis of The French school of economic warfare tradition, focusing on the last three decades of the 20th Century. The paper authored by George Papageorgakis shows how the requirement for the measure was reflected in the theoretical thinking of Presocratic philosophers. The paper deals with the period, when the concepts of measure, measurement and moderation penetrated into the fields of ethics and political philosophy, fields that still have not acquired a more systematic form as it happens in the era of Plato, Aristotle and their descendants. The paper authored by István Király V. attempts to conceptualise the “ancient” issues of human death and human mortality in connection to the timely and vital subject of euthanasia. The paper authored by Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena emphasises upon one of the most beautiful theories offering an optimal explanation of the Cosmos: Everett III's theory, Relative State Formulation Of Quantum Mechanics, later expanded by Bryce DeWitt (1971) as The Many-Worlds Interpretation Of Quantum Mechanics.

    The third section of this issue is Politics law and Governance. The paper authored by Prida Ariani Ambar Astuti is a Case Study of Elections in Jakarta, Indonesia which attempts to prove that Social media platforms have paved the way for political participation among youth, and has re-conceptualization the traditional form of political participation.


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  • Vol 4 No 3 (2016): Issue - September : Special issue on e-government : Future of E-Government learning from the Past Issue - September : Special issue on e-government : Future of E-Government learning from the Past
    Vol 4 No 3 (2016)



    We are living in an era of digitization thus moving towards a digital government. The use of ICT in public-administration is beneficial and it is not mere a coincidence that the top 10 countries in e-government implementation (according to UN E-Government Survey 2016) are flourishing democracies. There has been a sharp rise in the number of countries using e-government to provide public services online through one stop-platform. According to the 2016 survey, 90 countries now offer one or more single entry portal on public information or online services, or both and 148 countries provide at-least one form of online transaction services. More and more countries are making efforts through e-government to ensure and increase inclusiveness, effectiveness, accountability and transparency in their public institutions. Across the globe, data for public information and security is being opened up. The 2016 survey shows that 128 countries now provide data-sets on government spending in machine readable formats. E-government and innovation seems to have provided significant opportunities to transform public administration into an instrument of sustainable development. The governments around the globe are rapidly transforming. The use of information and communication technology in public administration – combined with organizational change and new skills- seems to be improving public services and democratic processes and strengthening support to public policies. There has been an increased effort to utilize advanced electronic and mobile services that benefits all. Fixed and wireless broadband subscriptions have increased unevenly across regions, with Europe leading, but Africa still lagging behind. We have to focus on these substantial region disparities and growing divide. All countries agreed, in SDG 9, that a major effort is required to ensure universal access to internet in the least developed countries. The rise of Social media and its easy access seems to have enabled an increasing number of countries moving towards participatory decision making, in which developed European countries are among the top 50 performers. But, the issues of diminishing collective thinking and rising Individual thinking are some rising issues that we will have to deal with in the future. There are more sensitive issues like the new classification of citizens into literate-illiterate, e-literate and e-illiterate, that the governments need to look upon. It is a good sign that many developing countries are making good progress. Enhanced e-participation can support the realization of the SDGs by enabling more participatory decision making, but the success of e-government will ultimately depend upon our ability and capability to solve the contrasting issues raised due to this transition with sensitivity.

    In this issue of SOCRATES we have discussed, this new era of Digital Government. We have focused on what we have learned from the past and the future we want. From discussions on the role of e-governance within the local government settings in a modern democratic state to the experience of an academia with online examination, we have tried to include every possible aspect of e-government.

    Paper authored by Dr. Hoff Maarten, aims to outline the role of e-governance within the setting of a local government in a modern democratic state. It is agreed that a local governmental organization needs to be fit for the purpose of serving its citizens. Fits can be tested both through universally acknowledged principles, and drivers that suit modern on-demand organizations.

    Paper authored by Mr. Alsaeed Abraheem and Dr. Carl, proposes a conceptual framework which captures the main factors (both enablers and barriers) influence and contributes toward a successful implementation of eServices in countries that have unstable status. The paper draws upon Osborn and Gaebler’s work, ‘reinventing government’, which identifies 10 principles of government transformation. This is used to examine eGov examples in the case of Syria along with previous work covering barriers and enablers to eGov activities within countries that have unstable status. The resulting derived conceptual framework provides a base to understand eGov activity for nations going through geopolitical uncertainty.

    Paper authored by Mr. Saurabh Chandra highlights the initiatives taken by the Governments in India at various levels to modernise their processes and functions for delivery of information and services to the citizens, using the Information and Communication technology [ICT]. It also highlights E-Government uptake in different parts of the world, highlighting its need in India, as in developing countries like India, there is no comprehensive data on actual e-government uptake on a global scale.

    Paper authored by Mr. Peter Asare-Nuamah and Mr. Darko Emmanuel Agyepong highlights the various legal policies and framework that support e-governance in Ghana as well as the challenges of implementing e-governance initiatives. The findings of the study indicate that several polices and frameworks support e-governance in Ghana but their implementations are burdened with social, cultural, political and legal constraints. The study provides some recommendations that are necessary to tackle the challenges of e-governance implementation.

    Paper authored by Mr. Ojo Patrick highlights battling sub-Saharan African countries. The perspective in this paper is that the emergence of democratic governments in this region occurred through lopsided process which impacts on their governance structures. Consequently, the institutionalization of liberal democracy has been omitted; the absence of which creates gaps between aspiration for and struggle by African people for democracy on the one hand, and the actual performance of democratic governments on the other hand. The paper identifies structural deficiencies in the current pattern of governance as the political missing link in the value chain between democracy and development in the region. The paper recommends e-governance; an administrative process that guarantees good governance through accountability and transparency, as the necessary connecting link and panacea to bridging the observable existing gaps.

    Paper authored by Dr. Nandita Kaushal highlights the Plausibility of E-Governance as a Public Service Delivery Mechanism in India. It argues that there is no doubt, wherever e-governance projects have been conceived, designed and implemented with due regard to the needs of the people there positive outcomes have been visible. However, it has to be acknowledged that most of the projects are facing multiple challenges which are reducing their success rate. It recommends serious consideration to all the issues which are hampering their efficiency. At the same time it suggests measures that must be taken up to maintain the human face of these initiatives.

    Paper authored by Dr. Inderjeet Singh Sodhi reviews the achievements and progress of e-government in India. The paper briefly discusses various e-government projects in India. The purpose of the paper is to delve into policy and issue of the government of India in making e-government accessible to the common person. It briefly identifies the strategic issues for achievement of e-government. This paper derives a list of key strategic factors that are appropriate for planning, designing, development and implementation of e-government. The paper identifies the range of diverse problems, challenges and barriers planners and developers must face as they work in the e-government projects. The paper discusses prospects and future of e-government in India. The paper highlights the role of government to develop richer and deeper understanding of e-government.

    Paper authored by Ms. Shreyasi Ghosh attempts to trace the essence of e-government in the modern era of Indian Public Administration today as another new paradigm shift is in the offspring and slowly becoming distinct from the amorphous shape of Public Administration in the Indian context with the ICT-blessed governance, or e-Governance.

    Paper authored by Ms. Stuti Saxena probes the OGD platform using a qualitative and quantitative lens. This paper shows that OGD usage is popular among the end-users in terms of the number of views and downloads of the datasets. Future research might undertake the empirical investigation of the research hypotheses advanced in the paper.

    Paper authored by Dr. Jyotirmoy W. Singh is developed by a contributor who has been a national and International online examiner for past six or more years. This paper is based on his experience. It seeks to compare the traditional mode of examination with that of the online examination in citing the mode of High School Leaving Examination of Board of Secondary Education Manipur and International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) examination as case studies. I wish scholars and potential readers will find this issue useful. We will bring more special issues focused on e-government and other various dimensions of governance in the near future.

    Issue Editor

    Prof. Manoj Dixit

    Professor and Head

    Department of Public Administration, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India



  • Vol 4 No 2 (2016): Issue - June Issue - June
    Vol 4 No 2 (2016)

    About this issue:

    This issue of Socrates has been divided into five sections.

    The first section of this issue is Language & Literature- Persian. The article in this section introduces a Manuscript that highlights the 18th Century History of Awadh India.

    The second section of this issue is Anthropology. The article in this section provides the role of weaving activity in socio-cultural life of Oromo society in general and Macca Oromo in particular. It also highlights how weavers play a great role in perseveration of cultural heritage, employment creation, tourist attraction and environmental protection in these areas.

    The third section of this issue is History. The paper in this section is the excerpt of the UGC Minor Research Project under the financial help of the University Grants Commission carried out in the year 2014. This paper highlights Political identities and dilemma in Jharkhand Movement, India and raises Questions of ‘environmental revivalism' and its consequences.

    The fourth section of this issue is Philosophy. The first article in this section tries to demonstrate that the emergence of the Internet refutes any claims posed by neurologists on the traditional epistemological field of philosophy, proceeding from this ontological decision, the equation of human cognition to cybernetic systems. The paper also explores some social-semantic aspects of the cyberspace as a nexus of social representations of the individual identity that forms a new sphere of being, where the subjective and the objective merge in a virtual subjective objectivity with unique epistemological attributes and possibilities.

    The second article of this section deals with the question of how and why the civilizations of modernity construct social realities that fundamentally and institutionally are socio-politically unequal, unsustainable and that ecologically these societies reproduce unequal exchange of human, social and environmental resources and information. Moreover, it tries to position an alternative pathway for radical and democratic transformation through “the project of autonomy” influenced from the struggle for the commons as a protest against the commodification and monetarization of the whole of our existence. It aims to expand the knowledge about the struggle of social movements, as well as exposing the endless possibilities humanity have to re-imagine an autonomous present and a sustainable future.

    The fifth section of this issue is Politics, Law and Governance which contains an artilce that dwells on the experiences of India in the software and pharmaceutical industries to argue for the need for policy space in technology evolution.


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  • Vol 4 No 1 (2016): Issue - March Issue - March
    Vol 4 No 1 (2016)

    About this issue:

    This issue of Socrates has been divided into five sections.

    The first section of this issue is Language & Literature- English. The article in this section focuses on "The perspective of contemporaneity". It concludes that if we delve into the roots of ‘now’ ness we find that that we are defined by a past which is mostly girdled by the colonial shadows which continues to invade every segments of human civilization.

    The second section of this issue is Anthropology. The article in this section highlight ancient Macedonian customs and their influence in the modern Republic of Macedonia.This paper concludes that certain ritual actions from the ancient period, although modified, still largely correspond to the current Macedonian folk customs and beliefs, both in terms of the time of celebration and in terms of ritual actions, procedures and symbolism. Their continuity reflects the Macedonian identity, from antiquity to today.

    The third section of this issue is Economics,Management and Commerce. The paper in this section develops a model for designing and explaining Cost Management Strategies in the home appliance industry in Iran. It has also implemented organizational resource–based view to limit the research domain and focus on organizational actions; then it has used porter value chain (1985) to analyze the cost structure of the company which supports strategic decision making and inter–organizational verifications.

    The fourth section of this issue is Politics, Law and Governance, which contains an article that identifies lack of education as the main reasons for the backwardness of Indian Muslims. It claims that until and unless Muslim educational backwardness is addressed, the empowerment of Indian Muslims would remain elusive. The Muslims in India would remain politically marginalized and economically poor unless they overcome their educational backwardness and India cannot march on the path of development and claim to be world leader if majority of its minority community remains educationally backward.

    The fifth section of this issue is The New Book which reviews the Book "God Einstein and Shankardeva" Authored by Shri. Surendra Nath Bora.

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  • Vol 3 No 4 (2015): Issue - December Issue - December
    Vol 3 No 4 (2015)

    About this Issue:

    This issue of Socrates has been divided into five sections.

    The first section of this issue is Language & Literature- English. The first article of this section focuses on the ways, Dariyush Mehrjoui (well-known Iranian filmmaker) has tried to portray an Iranian intellectual in a situation similar to that of Herzog, rendering through this character the complex socio-political and cultural situation of post-revolutionary Iran., with the objective of offering insight into the political and cultural atmosphere of the modernized and post-revolutionary Iran. The second article of this section analyses Sam Shepard reflection on the traditional meanings of myth and their erasure in the postmodern societies.

    The second section of this issue is Language & Literature- Persian. The first article of this section is in Persian script, which analyses the Photography of water and reflection of meaning in the works of Prof. Amir H. Zekrgoo. The second article of this section seeks to provide a short introduction of notables who migrated to Awadh after the fall of Delhi and give a general overview of the life and contribution of these literary figures towards the development of the Persian literature.

    The third section of this issue is Philosophy, which contains an article that details the experiences of a social scientist in his quest to develop a greater understanding of science, scientists and those characteristics that ultimately determine greatness.

    The fourth section of this issue is Politics, Law and Governance, which contains an article that identifies good governance approach in tackling the raging menace of insecurity in the African continent. Finally, the paper concluded that one important missing link in the current democratization as well as guarantee of security in Africa is the challenge of flawed democracy.

    The fifth section of this issue is Interviews and Discussions, which contains the interview of Author and Historian Monette Bebow-Reinhard, who has been working with copper ancient rarities since 2000. She has been incorporating a database of copper ancient rarities (CAMD)all through the country with an end goal to track an exchange system.


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  • Vol 3 No 3 (2015): Issue - September Issue - September
    Vol 3 No 3 (2015)

    About this Issue:

    This issue of Socrates has been divided into four sections.

    The first section of this issue is English Language and Literature. The first article of this section applies feministic approach on the play “Women Beware Women,” written by Thomas Middleton, to show how the ideas are used by writers to help the dominance of male over female. The second article of this section explores the blocks and hurdles faced by the academia in imbibing and imparting the English language in Kerala. It explores the function of language in relation to expressing oneself and in relation to human lives and culture. It also touches upon the strategies to be adopted in teaching the language in a multilingual setting. It also tries to relate the learning of language to literature, which has always been a subject of debate. The third article of this section aims to shed light on the colonial features in Chinua Achebe’s novel, Things Fall Apart, presenting a postcolonial approach to the novel by drawing on the two critics’ ideas.

    The second section of this issue contains an article which examines the concept of “the friend zone” and its overwhelming impact on life and consciousness. Some crucial questions are raised in this context as to its new found origin, cause and its relative uniqueness. Critics’ views along with that of psychologists and social scientists are taken into account so as to approach the problem tactfully and effectively. The contribution of electronic media in its growth and propagation is studied so as to trace its propensity in overriding philosophies and social structures. Endeavor has been made to examine the pros and cons of abiding by this juvenile trend and a viable solution has been proposed.

    The third section of this issue contains a research paper on Iranin Spike Butted AXE/ ADZ-AXES in Iran. This topological study indicates that although the main manufacturing center in Iran was Luristan and Elam at their very first appearance in the Iranian plateau, in following years each type and form seem to be a distinct regional and even chronological evolutionary form of spike butted axes of simple practical examples to their highly decorated ceremonial variants.

    The fourth section of this issue contains an article that discusses the notion of metaphor, and relates it to a specific meaning, which, It argues, articulates Sara Kane’s play 4.48 Psychosis.

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  • Vol 3 No 2 (2015): Issue - June Issue - June
    Vol 3 No 2 (2015)

    About this Issue:

    This issue of Socrates has been divided into three sections.

    The first section of this issue is Language & Literature- English. The first article of this section tends to illustrate how, in spite of all those failures, Oedipus can be a hero.The second article of this section aims to explore artificial intelligence within the area of popular science fiction novels and films, which incorporates the fantasy of techno-salvation in the near future of singularity through overcoming the carbon limitations of human, fusing essence of spirituality with technology as well as extending spiritual beliefs into technological faith. The third article of this section deals with Comparative Poetics. It claims that the emergent plurivocal conversation of a comparative poetics that includes Middle East will open new horizons to our cross-cultural perspective.

    The second section of this issue is Philosophy. The first article of this section argues that we ought to make a concerted effort to promote intrinsic value in education.The philosophical novel, when written, taught, or read playfully, has potential to furnish this intrinsic value, thereby offering a promising way of seizing the moment in education. The second article of this section explores the systematic relationship in the work of Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) between his monadology, his metaphysics as presented in works such as De la causa, principio et uno, the mythopoeic cosmology of Lo spaccio de la bestia trionfante, and practical works like De vinculis in genere. The third article of this section argues for the synthesis of the Internalism and Externalism theory of justification. It is the opinion of the paper that since both internalist and externalists legitimately seeks the epistemic quest for certainty, both are important epistemologically.

    The third section of this issue is Economics, Commerce and Management. The Paper of this section analyzes different monetary and non-monetary factors influencing the poverty level. The analyze is based on data from the Living Standard Measurement Survey and using structural equations model.


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  • Vol 3 No 1 (2015): Issue - March Issue - March
    Vol 3 No 1 (2015)

    About this issue:

    This issue of Socrates has been divided into five sections.

    The first section of this issue is Language & Literature- English. The first article of this section deals with Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of “symbolic” or “soft” violencein Margaret Drabble’s latest novel, The Pure Gold Baby (2013).The second article of this section tends to analyses Connection in Richard Ford’s A Multitude of Sins. The third article of this section applies the formalistic approach to scrutinize the two poems of William Butler Yeats.

    The second section of this issue is Philosophy. The first article of this section analyses the epistemological limit that separates the superhero fictitious universe from our universe of causal reality. The second article of this section argues that whatever might be said about his attack on other German philosophers, Santayana’s attack on Kant, despite its subtlety, its force and its intelligence, is fundamentally misguided.

    The third section of this issue is Economics, Commerce and Management. In the first paper of this section authors have examined how, when and to what extent Strategic Human Resource Practices affect performance at the employee level. The second article of this section explores some of the important aspects of effective mobile money and digital financial services in bringing financial inclusion.

    The fourth section of this issue is Politics, Law and Governance. The article in this section explores the African Union’s (“AU”) science and technology plan and strategy for Africa within the construct of Kwame Nkrumah’s socio-political thought. The fifth section of this issue The new Book, reviews “AamNama” by renowned scholar and poet "Suhail Kakorvi".


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  • Vol 2 No 4 (2014): Issue - December Issue - December
    Vol 2 No 4 (2014)

    About this issue:

    This issue of Socrates has been divided into five sections.

    The first section of this issue Language & Literature- English contains a Film Analysis that covers Japanese society, Post-WWII.

    The second section of this issue Gender and sexuality studies contains a paper that foregrounds the issues of choice and consent for women which can in true terms establish them as ‘free agents’ and destabilize the master-slave hierarchical relation.

    The third section of this issue Short Comment Contains a short comment on film version of important German literary work “Die neuen Leiden des jungen W.”

    The fourth section of this issue The New Book contains review of a new book that recollects the “Memories of a Dialysis Patient".

    The final section of this issue Children & Maternal Health - Informative Article contains an informative article from the domain of Children & Maternal Health. This paper attempts to show that mobile eHealth services are a perfect companion of the pregnant women in various stages of pregnancy and highlights the necessity to analyse the requirements of the pregnant women and their technological skills as user of the eHealth services arises before deployment of it.


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  • Vol 2 No 3 (2014): Issue - September Issue - September
    Vol 2 No 3 (2014)

    About this issue:

    This issue of Socrates has been divided into seven sections.

    The first section is Language & Literature- English which contains a paper which is analysis on Laura Mulvey’s theory of visual pleasure and attempts to apply it on the re-imagination of sexuality in cinematic spaces. The paper also examines the consumer spaces where the homo-sexual communities occupy substantial space as target audience which has enough potential to determine the direction and success of any popular cultural medium.

    The second section is History, which contains a paper that is extracted from a project that records the memories of men and women in Manipur, who witnessed the Nupi Lan (1939) and Second World War (1942 – 1945). Scored highly by the Referee, this paper is undoubtedly an asset for researchers.

    The third section is Philosophy contains a few excellent papers. The first paper of this section argues that Nozick’s entitlement theory leads to indirect injustice and is therefore an unfitting philosophical theory. The second paper of this section draws comparisons between Socratic Questioning and Zen Buddhist Koan Practice. The third paper of this section contains a Dialectic and Literary Essay Intimate Marxist Space: The Dialectic House must read for the scholars. The fourth paper of this section is my personal favorite. This paper has attempted a critical analysis of the arguments from alternation and recollection for the immortality of the soul in Plato’s Phaedo. It argues that Plato fails to prove beyond reasonable doubt the reality of the soul. It also mentions that its proof for reincarnation which is hinged on the reality of the soul is not tenable. The fifth paper of this section is a Creative writing focused on Exaggeration, Human nature and moral values.

    The fourth section of this issue Politics, Law and Governance contains two selected articles. The first paper of this section highlights the Need for south - south cooperation to confront the challenges posed by the Global north as to north -south. The second paper of this section highlights the 21st century scramble for Africa, must read for development thinkers.

    The fifth section of this issue is Sociology, contains a paper based on a study conducted at University of Kashmir which attempts to find out the impact of internet on research. The sixth section of this issue is Economics, Management and commerce which contains a paper that highlights the Role of Microfinance in the Socio Economic development of Women. The seventh section of this issue contains Interview of renowned contemporary poet Dr. A.k. Chaudhary.


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  • Vol 2 No 2 (2014): Issue - June Issue - June
    Vol 2 No 2 (2014)
    About the Issue

    This Issue of Socrates contains selected scholarly articles from various scholarly disciplines. The entire issue has been divided into five sections.

    The first Section of the edition Language and Literature contains scholarly Research Papers from English language and Literature, Hindi literature and Persian literature. The first research paper of this section and the edition deals with Feminism and endeavours to investigate the origin and development of this movement; and also pays tribute to the inextinguishable and daredevil spirit of innumerable women who tirelessly contributed in making the “new woman” a reality. The Second paper which belongs to the scholarly discipline of Hindi Literature is a comparative analysis of two spiritual ideologies that prevails in India and different parts of the world. This sort of comparative study is rarely found in and which makes it an asset for the research literature.

    The second section of this issue, Swedish History, contains a paper that presents Sweden’s most dignified and faithful Queen Dowager: Catherine Stenbock.

    The third section of this issue, Politics, Law and Governance, contains various research articles on various scholarly themes. The first research paper of this section attempts to analyse Carl Schmitt’s and Agamben’s theories through this interesting tripartite relation among the political, sovereignty and exception which gives an interesting account to reconfigure sovereignty and its effects felt on Indian emergency of 1975-77 and anti-terror laws in recent times. Also in what ways it appears as a challenge to the centrality of law in a democracy. The second research paper of this section examines the Scottish enlightenment and involvement in this debate through James Mackintosh’s response to Burke this encounter of British and French enlightenment will illuminate our modern vision of human rights theories. The third research paper of this section is a research study in context of global security under the impact of globalization. The fourth research paper of this section deals with a universal problem popularly known as “Corruption”. This paper investigates the remedies of corruption as suggested by the great philosopher and teacher Kautilya in his masterpiece Arthashastra. The fifth research paper of this section deals with one of vibrant issues of free world “Human rights”.

    The fourth section of this issue contains some of the best research papers from the scholarly disciplines of Commerce Management and Economics. These research papers are based on the original research carried out by author(s). The first paper of this section studies the relationship between BPR and Organizational Structure with special reference to State Bank of India. The second paper of this section raises evacuation issues. The third paper of this section studies the dimensions of customer service in supply chain management (SCM) of small and medium enterprises of Jammu region. The fourth paper of this section investigates the Effectiveness of Public Distribution System in Jammu & Kashmir. The fifth paper of this section paper examines the role of cooperative societies in economic development of Bangladesh. The sixth paper of this section studies green marketing and reveals its challenges and opportunities in rural India.

    The fifth section of this issue represents the scholarly disciplines of Education. It contains a research paper which is based on an action research project to find out ways to improve student’s participation in the class.


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  • Vol 2 No 1 (2014): Issue - March Issue - March
    Vol 2 No 1 (2014)

    About this issue:

    This issue of Socrates has been divided into six sections:

    The first Section of this issue, Art, Culture and Literature, contains scholarly articles from English language and Literature, Hindi literature and Persian literature. A serious question raising article of National and International importance has also been included in this section under the title, Safeguard the cultural Heritage of Ladakh.

    The second section of this issue, American History, contains an article that investigates, why Lieutenant Colonel Custer met with defeat in order to take the Black Hills?

    The third section of this issue, Media Studies, contains an article that aims to provide a theoretical framework of public television networks in western countries pointing to the pertaining relationships with their political systems.

    The fourth section of this issue contains some of the best research papers from the scholarly disciplines of Commerce Management and Economics. The first research paper of this section empirically measures employee satisfaction in key areas.

    The fifth section of this issue represents the scholarly disciplines of Law and Politics. The first article analyses the socio-political movement for the establishment of democracy in Nepal. The second article analyses the Industrial dispute act and its impact on the Industrial development in India.

    The sixth section contains two general articles. The first article reflects the life of a great Sufi Saint Shah Kazim Qalander. The second article highlights the views of authors on various themes.


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  • Vol 1, No 1 (2013): ISSUE - YEAR 2013 Issue - Year 2013
    Vol 1 No 1 (2013)

    About this Issue:

    This issue of SOCRATES covers research papers from Anthropology, Environmental-science, Public-administration, Political-science, and Philosophy, Hindi literature, Persian Literature, and some of the best works from the pen of renowned poets and scholars. We are focused on expanding our scope and consolidating our position in both conceptual development and practical application with special emphasis on social issues. Our motive is to promote research as research is an essential part of higher learning. Research is generally undertaken so as to find the answers of those problems which are not easy or readily available to them. It helps the individuals to find out the solution or answer of any question in a systematic manner based on scientific investigation of those problems. Research always adds something to emerging stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the aid of observation, comparison, study and experiment. We believe that India cannot aspire to a future as an advanced society without cultivating large numbers of original thinkers and researchers to inspire new generation. Our mission behind introducing and initiating this journal is to motivate Scholars who have the willingness to Produce and publish quality research and discuss his/her original research, thoughts and ideas. We strongly believe in the concept of connected academic world. Thus we have indexed our journal at some of the best citation centers.


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