The Concept of Radif and Three Paradigms of Persian Music in Contemporary Iran

Main Article Content

Dabbagh Hossein https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9986-2433

Abstract

From 30 years ago onwards, Persian music, under the influence of Western philosophy, has been Westernised in the sense that some elements of Western philosophy have strongly impacted Persian music. In this paper, I intend to propose a critical leap in Persian music which leads to the creation of three different paradigms in Persian music. Philosophically, Persian music can be seen from three perspectives: Transcendental, Secular and Nominalistic. The Transcendental view considers Persian music as something that is related to what comes from high up, i.e. God. In this paradigm, the concept of Radif is a very important element which has a high place in the history of Persian music. Contrarily, the Secular view focuses on the mundane feature of Persian music in the sense that musicians care to produce melodies by humans and for humans. If Transcendentalists consider music as “less is more,” Secularists treat it as “less is bore.” However, the Nominalistic view tries to leave the two previous paradigms behind by not considering any essence for music, and thus focuses on the contextual feature of music. I conclude by saying that we are now dealing with different “Persian musics” rather than “a Persian music”.


DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2017.00019.X

Article Details

How to Cite
Hossein, D. (2018). The Concept of Radif and Three Paradigms of Persian Music in Contemporary Iran. SOCRATES, 5(3 and 4), 19-28. Retrieved from https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/327
Section
Philosophy
Author Biography

Dabbagh Hossein, Doha Institute for Gratuate Studies, Philosophy Program Al Tarfa St., Al Daayen, Doha, Qatar

Hi, I’m Hossein Dabbagh and I specialize in doing Research esp. in Humanities. I’m passionate about what I do, and I love to do teaching in Universities and Colleges. I spent my Doctoral journey in moral philosophy at the University of Reading and the University of Oxford, based at the Uehiro Center for practical ethics. I’m working on Moral Reasons, Normativity, and Meta-Ethics more generally. My interests are mostly in Normative ethics, Applied Ethics (Business Ethics), Moral psychology (esp. Hume), Philosophy of Language (esp. Wittgenstein and Metaphor Theories), Music Theory (esp. Persian Music), Philosophy of Religion and Islamic Mysticism (esp. Rumi).

References

Akbarzadeh, P., (2000). Persian Musicians, Vol. I, Navid Publications, Shiraz. (Persian)
Akbarzadeh, P., (2002). Persian Musicians, Vol. II, Roshanak Publications, Tehran/Los Angeles. (Persian)
Farhat, H., (1990). The Dastgah Concept in Persian Music. Cambridge University Press.
Hussain, A. and Nabi Khaki, G., (2014). “Expansion and Consolidation of Islam in Iran to the End of Qajar Period”. Khazar Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 17, No. 3, 34-48.
Khaleghi, R., (1956). The History of Persian Music, Safiali-Shah Publications, Tehran. (Persian)
Kiani, M., (2005). “Introduction” in Shahab Mena (ed.), The Radif for Santur, Mahur Publisher. (Persian)
Kiani, M., (2004). Three Different methods of playing Santur, DVDs. (Persian)
Kuhn, T., (1962), The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Layegh, M. A., Haghipour, S., Sarem, Y. N., (2013). “Classification of the Radif of Mirza Abdollah a canonic repertoire of Persian music using SVM method”, Gazi University Journal of Science Part A: Engineering and Innovation, 1, 57-66.
Miller, L., (1999). Music and Song in Persia: The Art of Avaz. Salt Lake City University of Utah Press.
Nasr, H., (1987). Islamic Art and Spirituality. State University of New York Press.
Nettl, B., (1987), The Radif of Persian music: Studies of structure and cultural context, Elephant & Cat publisher.
Sepanta, S., (1990). Outlook on the Music of Persia, Mashal Publications, Isfahan. (Persian)
Talaei, D., (1992). Theory of Iranian Music; Radif, Mahur Publisher, Tehran. (Persian)
Radif of Iranian music - intangible heritage - Culture Sector - UNESCO. (2008). Ich.unesco.org. Retrieved 8 April 2018, from https://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/radif-of-iranian-music-00279
Radif (music) - WikiVividly. (n.d.). Wikivividly.com. Retrieved 8 April 2018, from https://wikivividly.com/wiki/Radif_(music)
Dastgāh | Persian music. (n.d.). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 April 2018, from https://www.britannica.com/art/dastgah#ref132167
Romero, A. (2003). Classical Persian Music | World Music Central.org. Worldmusiccentral.org. Retrieved 8 April 2018, from https://worldmusiccentral.org/2003/04/14/classical-persian-music/
Iran Chamber Society: Music of Iran: Iranian Traditional Music Instruments. (n.d.). Iranchamber.com. Retrieved 8 April 2018, from http://www.iranchamber.com/music/articles/iranian_music_instruments.php
sound garden. (n.d.). Tanbour.org. Retrieved 8 April 2018, from http://www.tanbour.org/gallery/sound.htm