Main Article Content
Freedom of expression in social media with ease to express an opinion, comment, be a friend, a follower of the candidate, as well as easy to share links and to post 'like', encouraging young voters to participate in the election and influencing their decision to vote. Young people are often considered as a group that does not matter even tend apathetic towards politics because they think their voices will not be heard by the authorities. However, advances in technology have removed this presumption by breaking down barriers to freedom of expression. The survey conducted on 385 university students in Jakarta and the Jakarta gubernatorial elections in 2012 and 2017 to a research context. Freedom to obtain information that is not limited and interaction in social media also encourage young voters to participate in elections.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Revised Copyright/CC license that applies to all the articles published after 05-02-2017
Copyright/CC license that applies to all the articles published before 05-02-2017
Author(s) will retain all the right except commercial and re-publishing rights. In the case of re-publishing, they will have to obtain written permission from the journal. Additional licensing agreements (Creative Commons licenses) grants rights to readers to copy, distribute, display and perform the work as long as you give the original author(s) credit, they can not use the works for commercial purposes and are not allowed to alter, transform, or build upon the work. For any reuse or distribution, readers and users must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holders. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the authors’ rights. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
Research Papers published in SOCRATES are licensed under an Attribution -NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Badan Akreditasi Nasional-Perguruan Tinggi. (2013). Hasil akreditasi. Retrieved from http://banpt. kemdiknas.go.id/hasil-akreditasi/en/hasil-pencarian.php
Baek, Y. M., & Wojcieszak, M. E. (2009). Don’t expect too much! Learning from late night comedy and knowledge item difficulty. Communication Research, 36, 783-809.
Bartel, L. M., & Rahn, W. M. (2000). Political attitudes in the Post-Network Era. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of American Political Science Association, Washington.
Benkler, Y. (2006). The wealth of networks: How social production transforms markets and freedom. Boston: Yale University Press.
Bennett, L. (1998). The uncivil culture: Communication, identity, and the rise of lifestyle politics. PS: Political Sciences and Politics, 31(4), 740-761.
Bond, R. M., Fariss, C. J., Jones, J. J., Kramer, A. D. I., Marlow, C., Settle, J. E., & Fowler, J. H. (2012). A 61- million-person experiment in social influence and political mobilization. Nature, 489, 295-298.
Boulianne, S. (2009). Does internet use affect engagement? A meta-analysis of research. Political Communication, 26(2), 193-211.
Carlisle, J. E., & Patton, R. C. (2013, Dec.). Is social media changing how we understand political engagement? An analysis of Facebook and the 2008 presidential election. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23612065
Cassel, C. A., & Lo, C. C. (1997). Theories of political literacy. Political Behavior, 19, 317-335.
Chaffee, S. H., & Kanihan, S. E. (1997). Learning about politics from the media. Political Communication 14(4), 421-430.
Collins, A. (2012, June). Why Obama is dominating Mitt Romney on Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest. Retrieved from http://www.policymic.com/articles/10072/why-obama-is-dominating-mitt-romneyon-facebook-twitter-and-pinterest
Corrado, A., & Firestone, C. (1996). Elections in cyberspace: Toward a new era in American politics. Washington, DC: Aspen Institute.
Costanza-Chock, S. (2009). New social movements in the network society. In L. Rudebeck, J. Hellstrom and M. Melin (Eds.). Big brother and empowered sisters: The role of new communication technologies in democratic processes (pp. 13-28). Proceedings of a Conference and Workshop in Uppsala. Uppsala: Uppsala University.
Dalager, J. K. (1996, May). Voters, issues, and elections: Are the candidates’ messages getting through? The Journal of Politics, 58(2), 486-515.
Flew, T. (2007). New media: An introduction (3rd ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Foot, K. A, & Schneider, S. M. (2006). Web campaigning. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Gong, R. (2011). Internet politics and state media control: Candidate weblogs in Malaysia. Sociological Perspectives, 54(3), 307-328. Retrieved from
Graber, D. A. (1980). Mass media and American politics. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly.
Haynes, A. A., & Pitts, B. (2009, Jan.). Making impression: New media in the 2008 presidential nomination campaigns. PS: Political Science and Politics, 42(1), 53-58. Retrieved from http://www.jstor/org/stable/20452373
Howard, P. N. (2005, January). Deep democracy, thin Citizenship: The impact of digital media in political campaign strategy. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 597, Cultural Production in a Digital Age, 153-170. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25046067
Huckfeldt, R. (2001). The social communication of political expertise. American Journal of Political Science, 45(2), 425-439.
Iyengar, S., & Kinder, D. R. (1987). News that matters: Television and American opinion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kahne, J., & Middaugh, E. (2012). Digital media shapes youth participation in politics. The Phi Delta Kappa, 94(3), 52-56. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41763677
Kahne, J., Lee, N., & Feezell, J. (2011). Digital media literacy education and online civic and political participation. International Journal of Communication, 6, 1-24.
Kompas.com. (2012, July 16). Hasil hitung cepat Pilkada DKI: Ada yang popular, ada yang berbenah. Retrieved from http://megapolitan.kompas.com/read/2012/07/
Lim, N. N. (2009). Novel or Novice: Exploring the contextual realities of youth political participation in the age of social media. Philippine Sociological Review, 57, 61-78. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23898344
Loader, B. (2007). Young citizens in the digital age: Political engagement, young people and new media. London: Routledge.
Lock, A., & Harris, P. (1996). Political marketing - viva le difference! European Journal of Marketing, 30(10/11), 14–24. Retrieved from
McClurg, S. D. (2003). Social network and political participation: The role of social interaction in explaining political participation. Political Research Quarterly, 56(4), 449-464.
McLeod, J. M., & McDonald, D. G. (1985). Beyond simple exposure: Media orientations and their impact on political process. Communication Research, 12, 3-34.
Mergel, I. (2012). The public manager 2.0: Preparing the social media generation for a networked workplace. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 18(3), 467-492. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23272651
Oblak, T., & Zeljan, K. (2007). Slovenian online campaigning during the 2004 European Parliament election: Struggling between self-promotion and mobilization. In Randolph Kluver, Nicholas W. Jankowski, Kirsten A. Foot & Steven M. Schneider (Eds.), The internet and national elections: A comparative study of web campaigning (pp. 60-76). New York: Routledge.
Pavlik, J. V., & McIntosh, S. (2011). Converging media: A new introduction to mass communication (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Perlmutter, D. D. (2008). Scholar discusses new media in 2008 U.S. political campaign. Ask America. Retrieved from http://www.america.gov/st/washfileenglish/
Pew Research Center. (2011). 22% of online Americans used social networking or twitter for politics in 2010 campaign. Retrieved from http://pewinter-net.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2011/PIP-Social-Media-and2010-Election.pdf
Potter, W. J. (2012). Media effects. New York: Sage Publication, Inc.
Prior, M. (2005, Jul.). News vs. entertainment: How increasing media choice widens gaps in political knowledge and turnout. American Journal of Political Science, 49(3), 577-592. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3647733
Resnick, P. (2004). Impersonal sociotechnical capital, ICTs, and collective action among stranger. In W. Dutton, B. Kahin, R. O’Callaghan & A. Wyckoff (Eds.), Transforming enterprise (pp. 489-499). Boston:
Scott, P. R., & Jacka, J. M. (2011). Auditing social media: A governance and risk guide. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Shirky, C. (2011, Jan./Feb.). The political power of social media: Technology, the public sphere, and political change. Foreign Affairs, 90(1), 28-41. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25800379
Shoemaker, P. J., & Stephen D. R. (1996). Mediating the message: Theories of influence on mass media content. New York: Longman.
Simon, A. F. (1997). Television news and international earthquake relief. Journal of Communication, 47(3), 82-93.
Statistik, B. P. (2010). Penduduk menurut umur tunggal, daerah perkotaan/pedesaan, dan jenis kelamin provinsi DKI. Jakarta.
Straubhaar, J., LaRose, R., & Davenport, L. (2012). Media now: Understanding media, culture, and technology (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Sunstein, C. R. (2001). Republic.Com. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Tolbert, C., & McNeal, R. (2003). Unraveling the effects of the internet on political participation. Political Research Quarterly, 56(2), 175-185.
Tsagarousianou, R. (1999). Electronic democracy: rhetoric and reality. Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research, 24(2), 189–208.
Verba, S., Schlozman, K. L., & Brady, H. E. (1995). Voice and equality: Civic voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Ward, J. (2007). Addressing young people online: The 2004 European Parliament election campaign and political youth websites. In Randolph Kluver, Nicholas W. Jankowski, Kirsten A. Foot & Steven M. Schneider (Eds.), The internet and national elections: A comparative study of web campaigning (pp. 136-
149). New York: Routledge.
Wattenberg, M. P. (1990). The decline of American political parties 1952-1988. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Weaver, D. H. (1996). What voters learn from media. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 546, 34-47. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1048168
Wood, J. T. (2009). Communication in our lives (5th ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning.