Fugitive Youth and Transnational Terrorism
The Nigerian/ Cameroonian Perspectives
Youths are oftentimes regarded as the prospective leaders of their countries. Nevertheless, many youths in sub-Sahara Africa, in Nigeria and Cameroun precisely, are potential absconders from homes of orientation. Some of the responsible variables are mind-body problem, alternative thinking, and poverty to mention a few. These variables are the identified drivers of dimensions of insecurity and/or crises that are witnessed in both countries. Given this, the study demonstrates the role of the fugitive youths in the abating terror attacks at the frontiers and within some regions of Nigeria and Cameroun. Also, the study argues that priority should be accorded to the factors inducing fugitive youths to embrace antisocial/ anti-societal behaviours, especially terrorism within the Nigeria and Cameroun. To achieve these objectives, survey interview and desktop research were employed.
African Youth Charter (July 2006). Retrieved from www.un.org/en/africa/osaa/pdf/au/African_youth_charter_2006.pdf ; www.esaro.unfpa.org/publications/african-youth-charter
Aderinokun, K. (2015, March 8). PwC: Nigeria to Rank among Top 10 Economies by 2050. ThisDayLive. Retrieved from www.thisdaylive.com/articles/pwc-nigeria-to-rank-among-top-10-economies-by-2050/203571/
Azohnwi, A. (2015, July 17). Rehabilitation of Tiko Airport, Council building, Tiko-Douala road may be demolished. Cameroon Daily Journal. Retrieved from http://cameroonjournal.com/national-news/rehabilitation-of-tiko-airport-council-building-tiko-douala-road-may-be-demolished/
Ben-Dor, G. (1983). State and Conflict in the Middle East: Emergence of the Post-colonial State. New York: Praeger.
Best, Amy L. (2000). Prom Night: Youth, Schools, and Popular Culture. New York: Routledge.
Block, F. (1978). Marxist Theories of the State in World Systems Analysis. In B. H. Kaplan (Ed.), Social Change in the Capitalist World Economy (pp. 27). Beverly Hills: Sage.
Brown, L. M. (1999). Raising Their Voices: The Politics of Girls’ Anger. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Buzan, B. (2007). People, States & Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. Colchester: ECPR.
Chin, E. (2001). Purchasing Power: Black Kids and American Consumer Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Corsaro, W. (1985). Friendship and Peer Culture in the Early Years. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Cohen, P. (1997). Rethinking the Youth Question. London: Macmillan Press.
Corsaro, W. (2003). We’re Friends Right? Inside Kids’ Culture. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press.
Diop, M. (2016). Foreword. In K. Beegle, L. Christiaensen, A. Dabalen, I. Gaddis, Poverty in a Rising Africa (pp. vii). Washington, D. C.: World Bank.
Eisenstadt, S. N. (1963). Archetypal patterns of youth. In E. H. Erickson (Ed.), Youth: Change and Challenge (pp. 27). New York: Basic Books.
Eisenstadt, S. N. (1963). Archetypal Patterns of Youth. In E. H. Erickson (Ed.), Youth: Change and Challenge (pp. 24). New York: Basic Books.
Eroke, L. (2014, May 24). Dangers of Rising Youth Unemployment. ThisDayLive. Retrieved from www.thisdaylive.com/articles/dangers-of-rising-youth-unemployment/174483/
Fine, G. A. (1987). With the Boys: Little League Baseball and Preadolescent Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Fokwang, J. (2008). Youth Subjectivities and Associational Life in Bamenda, Cameroon. Africa Development XXXIII, 157–162.
France, A. (2007). Understanding Youth in Late Modernity. England: Open University Press.
Gurr, T. R. (2011). Why Men Rebel. Boulder/London: Paradigm Publishers.
Hobson, J. M. (2000). The State and International Relations. Port Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
Horkheimer, M. (1972). Critical Theory. New York: Seabury Press.
Horkheimer, M. (1947). Eclipse of Reason. London: Oxford University Press.
Hoselitz, B. & Willner, A. (1962). Economic Development, Political Strategies, and American Aid. In M. A. Kaplan (Ed.), The Revolution in World Politics (pp. 363). New York: Wiley.
Ibrahim, Mo. (2013, May). Quotables. Africa Renewal.
Ighobor, K. (2013, May). A seat at the table: African youth demand a say in decision making. Africa Renewal 27, 1.
Johnson-Hanks, J. (2002). On the Limits of the Life Cycle in Ethnography: Toward a Theory of Vital Conjunctures. American Anthropologist 104, 3, 865-880.
Kellner, D. (1964/1991). Introduction to the Second Edition. In H. Marcuse, One Dimensional Man. Boston: Beacon Press.
Nfor, M. (2014, November 3). Yaounde city faces tough choices over planned motorway. Retrieved from http://www.urbanafrica.net/news/yaounde-city-faces-tough-choices-planned-motorway/
Nsom, K. (2007, May 17). Cameroon: U.S. Citizen Sues Gov't Delegate for Demolishing House. AllAfrica. Retrieved from http://allafrica.com/stories/200705170767.html
Nwabughiogu, L. (2016, January 16). Why Buhari Ordered Probe of ex-Military Chiefs, Badeh, Amosu. Vanguard. Retrieved from www.vanguardngr.com/2016/01/why-buhari-ordered-probe-of/
Okakwu, E. (2016, March 16). How ex-Airforce Chief Badeh diverted over N1 billion personnel’s salary surplus monthly –witness. Premium Times. Retrieved from
Olasanmi, K. (2016, February 10). N400 m fraud: EFCC closes case against Olisa Metuh. Leadership. Retrieved from http://leadership.ng/news/499900/n400m-fraud-efcc-closes-case-olisa-metuh
Payne, J. & Onuah, F. (2015, October 2). Nigeria’s ex-oil Minister Alison – Madueke arrested in London – Sources. Reuters. Retrieved from www.uk.reuters.com/article/uk-nigeria-oil-arrest-idUKKCN0RW21820151002
Pilcher, J. (1995). Age and Generation in Modern Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Robson, E., Ansell, N., Huber, U., Gould, W. and Lorraine van Blerk, L. (2006). Young Caregivers in the Context of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Population, Space and Place 12, 2.
Shane, H. (2001). Chad Oil Pipeline to Cameroon and Its Impacts. TED Case Studies (TCS) 650.
Shaw, M. N. (1997). International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Skovdal, M. (2010). Children Caring for Their “caregivers”: Exploring the Caring Arrangements of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Western Kenya. AIDS Care 22, 1, 69-103.
Survey interview at the Department of History and Strategic Studies, University of Lagos, Lagos, 2015, May.
Survey interview at the Department of Sociology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, 2015, January.
Survey interview at the Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 2015, January.
The World Bank Group. (2016). Unemployment, youth total (% of total labor force ages 15-24) (modelled ILO estimates). The World Bank. Retrieved from data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.1524.ZS
Thompson, C. B. (1999/2013). Beyond Civil Society: Child Soldiers as Citizens in Mozambique. In R. Abrahamsen (Ed.), Conflict & Security in Africa (pp. 209-224). Suffolk: James Currey, in association with Review of African Political Economy.
USDLBILA. (2011). Findings on the worst forms of child labour. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/child-labour/findings/2011TDA/cameroon.pdf
Wæver, O. (1995). Securitization and Desecuritization. In R. D. Lipschutz (Ed.), On Security. New York: Columbia University Press.
Waltz, K. N. (1979). Theory of International Politics. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.
Wendt, A. (2015). Quantum Mind And Social Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
William, S. (2012, March). Africa’s youth: The African Development Bank and the Demographic Dividend. New African, p. 30.
World Population Prospects (WPR). (2016). Cameroon Population 2016. Retrieved from worldpopulationreview.com/countries/cameroon-population
Copyright (c) 2017 Paul Adesanya Olusegun, Dr., Tomi Olominu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Revised Copyright/CC license that applies to all the articles published after 05-02-2017
Copyright/CC license that applies to all the articles published before 05-02-2017
Author(s) will retain all the right except commercial and re-publishing rights. In the case of re-publishing, they will have to obtain written permission from the journal. Additional licensing agreements (Creative Commons licenses) grants rights to readers to copy, distribute, display and perform the work as long as you give the original author(s) credit, they can not use the works for commercial purposes and are not allowed to alter, transform, or build upon the work. For any reuse or distribution, readers and users must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holders. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the authors’ rights. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
Research Papers published in SOCRATES are licensed under an Attribution -NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)