30 June 2014

EDITION - II VOL: II ISSUE - JUNE 2014 *Current Issue*

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ISSN 2347-6869

S O C R A T E S 
Edition - II Vol: II Issue - June 2014 
* Current Issue*

ISSN 2347-2146

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Editorial 


INDEX


Language and Literature

1.  Who I Am – Feminism Revisited: An Overview

Author / Authors : Puja Chakraberty
About the author : Puja Chakraberty is Research scholar in Humanities (English Literature) at The Kolhan University, Jharkhand.
About the article :
Page no.1 -  8
Discipline : English literature/Gender Studies/ Cultural studies
Script/language :  English (Roman)
Category : Research paper
Abstract: 
Feminism is for women, what the Elizabethan age was for England, “…rousing herself, like a strong man after sleep, and shaking her invincible locks.” (Milton) Although the struggle, significance and sophistication associated with the term is not of one age but of ages. Over the years women fought for what may be called the “renaissance” or rebirth of the new woman; who could be socially, politically, legally and economically independent. But all this was slow to come. The general outcry took the form of a powerful and magnanimous movement, which literally altered the face of patriarchal society. The present paper endeavours to investigate the origin and development of this movement; and also to pay a tribute to the inextinguishable and daredevil spirit of innumerable women who tirelessly contributed in making the “new woman” a reality. While doing research, one has to be duly conscious of all the facets and tenets governing the issue. To enumerate and illuminate upon a few aspects and leave alone the rest would be doing great injustice to the subject matter altogether, for each detail is imminent and inextricably linked to the foundation and formation of the aforesaid issue, in the absence of which the related discussion loses its strength and vitality. The current paper resolves to discreetly approach this problem. The chief purpose of this work is to voice the voiceless, to empower the muted and to lend vision to those who are shortsighted to the estimate of a woman and her worth.
Keywords: feminism, invincible, significance, rebirth, new woman, development, tribute, daredevil.


2.  निर्गुण प्रेम मार्गी सूफ़ी संत कवि एवं उनका काव्य, ज्ञान मार्गी संत काव्य धारा एवं निर्गुण प्रेम मार्गी सूफ़ी संत काव्य धारा में साम्य एवं वैषम्य 


Author / Authors : डॉ0 आभा रानी  
About the author : डॉ0 आभा रानी, रांची विश्वविद्यालय रांची के अंगीभूत एस एस मेमोरियल कॉलेज के हिन्दी विभाग की अध्यक्षा हैं तथा उत्तर-प्रदेश हिन्दी संस्थान साहित्यकार निर्दर्शिनी में सम्मिलित समकालीन हिन्दी साहित्यकार हैं |
About the article :
Page no. 9 - 49
Discipline : Hindi Literature/Cultural studies/Sufism
Script/language :Devnagiri /  Hindi 
Category : Research paper
Abstract:
प्रस्तुत शोध-पत्र निर्गुण प्रेम मार्गी सूफ़ी संत कवियों, ज्ञान मार्गी संत काव्य धारा एवं निर्गुण प्रेम मार्गी सूफ़ी संत काव्य धारा के मध्य साम्य एवं वैषम्य को प्रस्तुत करता है | 
Keywords:  निर्गुण प्रेम मार्गी सूफ़ी संत कवि, ज्ञान मार्गी संत काव्य धारा, निर्गुण प्रेम मार्गी सूफ़ी संत काव्य धारा

3. Phonological change of vowel length in Farsi


Author / Authors : Reza Heidarizadi
About the author : Reza Heidarizadi is PhD. Candidate of Persian Linguistics at Payam Noor University Teheran – Iran
About the article :
Page no. 50 - 55
Discipline : Persian Linguistics/language 
Script/language :  Roman/English
Category : Research paper
Abstract: 
There are six vowels in the modern Farsi. Generally it is claimed that vowel length is not a phonemic characteristic in this language. On the other hand, many of the researchers show that the deletion of glottal consonants in the coda cluster is followed by a compensatory lengthening in Farsi. The purpose of this paper is to analyze minimal pairs having contrast only in vowel length. Forty words were collected for this purpose. These words are arranged into monosyllabous minimal pairs. It's argued that glottal consonants are analogically deleted in coda. This phonetic process causes vowel lengthening. Hereby, many words are equally except of their vowel length. This leads to the existence of minimal pairs with different vowel length. Conclusion is that vowels are under progressing change and probably vowel length will be one of the phonemic features of the vowels in Farsi.
Keywords: Farsi vowels, vowel length, Compensatory lengthening


Swedish History 

4. Catherine The Faithful Queen Dowager

Author / Authors : Charles E.J. Moulton
About the author : Charles E.J. Moulton is a true Renaissance-Man: actor, singer, author, painter, teacher, historian and public speaker. He is a studied historian and has worked as a trilingual tour-guide at Kalmar Castle. 
About the article :
Page no. 56 – 68
Discipline : History/Swedish History
Script/language :  Roman/English
Category : Research paper
Abstract: 
Most of the young aristocratic women during the Renaissance had no say in who they were to marry. If they were Queens, or holding influential positions of power of any higher kind, they could pick and choose between bridegrooms. In Lucrezia Borgia’s case, her arranged marriage to the Lord of Val d’Ayora was annulled less than two months later. Today, one would say that there were
“irreconcilable differences”. That was, however, a very rare case. Her father was Pope Alexander VI. Catherine Stenbock’s father was not a pope. He was, nevertheless, a nobleman and belonged to one of the most influential families in Sweden. When King Gustav Vasa proclaimed having chosen Catherine as his new Queen, the young girl had no other choice than to accept his offer. It wasn’t that she didn’t fight or try to run and hide.
She did hide. Where? Behind a bush.
Eventually, she had to come out and her father could again smile. His daughter would become the most powerful woman in the country. The real achievement was the grace, dignity, intelligence and nobility with which Catherine handled the situation. She silenced the sceptics by becoming a faithful and hardworking Queen and a regal personality. Working as a trilingual tour guide at Kalmar Castle during the 1990’s, I came across stories about this woman on many occasions. This paper is the result of two decades of research: I present to you now Sweden’s most dignified and faithful Queen Dowager: Catherine Stenbock.
Keywords: Swedish history, Renaissance women, Arranged marriages, 16th century royalty
.

Politics, Law and Governance

5. The idea of the political, reconfiguring sovereignty and exception: Analysing theoretical perspectives of Carl Schmitt and Giorgio Agamben 


Author / Authors : Meenakshi Gogoi
About the author : Meenakshi Gogoi is Research Scholar in the Centre for Political Studies at The Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi India.
About the article :
Page no. 69-78
Discipline : Political Science/Polity/ Democratic studies
Script/language :  Roman/English
Category : Research paper
Abstract:
The idea of ‘political’ is the most controversial term in the contemporary social science discourse and it remains vaguely understood. The ‘political’ is the fundamental authoritative domain pertaining to the state which ropes into it one of the basic concepts of politics i.e- sovereignty. The interconnectedness between ‘political’ and sovereignty is challenged with the emergence of liberal democracy. The idea of ‘political’ in the theoretical perspective of Carl Schmitt is related to the notion of sovereignty which is in contrary to the conventional understanding of sovereignty. His idea of sovereignty is specifically related to an exception. Giorgio Agamben’s theory of ‘state of exception’ is inspired from Carl Schmitt’s idea of sovereignty and its relation to exception though it re-interpreted exception as a permanent rule. This paper attempts to analyse Carl Schmitt’s and Agamben’s theories through this interesting tripartite relation among the political, sovereignty and exception which gives an interesting account to reconfigure sovereignty and its
effects felt on Indian emergency of 1975-77 and anti-terror laws in recent times. Also in what ways it appears as a challenge to the centrality of law in a democracy.
Keywords: Political, Sovereignty, Exception, Democracy, Rule of Law.


6. Scottish and French Enlightenment J. Mackintosh and the revolution controversy in Great Britain

Author / Authors : Dr. Eleni Xilakis
About the author : Dr. Eleni Xilakis finished her PhD in Political philosophy in March 2013 from the Pantheon-Sorbonne University of Paris, France.
About the article :
Page no. 79-88
Discipline : Political Science/Polity/ Democratic studies
Script/language :  Roman/English
Category : Research paper
Abstract
Edmund Burke’s Reflexions on the Revolution in France provoked one of the most fertile political debates in Great Britain. As a response to the French revolution and declaration of 1789, Burke received instantly numerous responses, namely by Thomas Paine, Mary Wollstonecraft and others; this paper examines the Scottish enlightenment involvement in this debate through James Mackintosh’s response to Burke this encounter of British and French enlightenment will illuminate our modern vision of human rights theories.
Keywords: Scottish and French Enlightenment, J. Mackintosh, the revolution controversy in Great Britain.


7. Understanding Terrorism in the context of Global Security

Author / Authors : Shreyasi Ghosh
About the author : Shreyasi Ghosh is Research Scholar /Former Student of Presidency University, Kolkata India.
About the article :
Page no. 89-106
Discipline : Political Science/Polity/ Democratic studies
Script/language :  Roman/English
Category : Research paper
Abstract:
Terrorism being a complex phenomenon, is an alarming kind of violence, threat, a method to combat or a strategy to achieve certain goals aiming to induce a state of fear in the victim, which is ruthless and does not confirm to humanitarian norms where publicity becomes an essential factor in the terrorist strategy indulging killing of innocent and destruction of much valuable property thereby creating wide panic and gripping the remotest part of the world. Thus, the fight against terrorism has not only become a primordial concern for all the nations but also for research study in the context of global security under the impact of globalization.
Keywords: Terrorism, Violence, Threat, Global Security, Globalization.

8. Corruption Prevention Measures Recommended by Kautilya

Author / Authors : Dr. Priti Pohekar
About the author : Dr. Priti Pohekar is Assistant Professor in Public Administration, At Rajarashi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur-Maharashtra
About the article :
Page no. 107- 113
Discipline : Political Science/Polity/ Democratic studies
Script/language :  Roman/English
Category : Research paper
Abstract:
Corruption is all-pervading phenomena. Today, it is observed that the world is going through the problem. The malady of corruption prevailed in all periods of history; i.e. ancient, medieval, modern. It can be said that history of corruption is as old as the history of mankind. The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the remedies of corruption as was suggested in Kautilyas Arthashastra.
Keywords:Corruption, remedies of corruption, Kautilya Arthashastra.

9. Human Rights and Democracy: India’s Experience

Author / Authors : Aynul Haque
About the author :Aynul Haque is Assistant Professor of Political Science, at Guskara Mahavidyalaya, Guskara, Burdwan , West Bengal, India.
About the article :
Page no. 114- 125
Discipline : Political Science/Polity/ Democratic studies
Script/language :  Roman/English
Category : Research paper
Abstract :
During the last six decades, human rights have become a live and vibrant issue in the free world. Human rights as the recognition of inherent and basic individual worth and dignity are as old as human civilization. An individual attains by birth some rights as human being. Thus the idea of human rights is civilization as it is a political idea with moral base. The concern for and of human rights has been institutionalized after General Assembly of UN adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the mid twentieth century. The expression “human rights” suggests rights of all human beings. The moral foundation of human rights to universality has not been questioned yet at least in principle, though there are some instances of rejection to this aspect of universality, either manifest or disguised, are fairly large in all parts of the world. The idea of democracy has led to great expectations to the people. It has become a key point of political legitimacy. In fact it is producing the greatest disillusionment and frustration recently. From the late 19th Century democracy and capitalism appear to have moved along independent yet parallel paths. During the 20th Century they gained in strength, interacting mutually and establishing an interface. The result of which the concept of welfare state emerges, defines the role of the state in an interventionist manner. On representative democracy Benjamin Barber says, ‘Representations destroys participation and citizenship even as it serves accountability and private rights.’ Indian Constitution, the most right-based Constitution of the world, provides ethical foundation of human rights in its Preamble, while the legal expression of these found in Part-III and part-IV of the Constitution.
Keywords: Human Rights, Democracy, Constitution, violence, crime, corruption and India.


Economics, Commerce and Management

10. Business Process Reengineering and Organizational Structure – A Case Study of Indian Commercial Banks

Author / Authors : Dr. Naveeda Seher
About the author : Dr. Naveeda Seher is Assistant Professor of Management at the Islamic University of Science and Technology Awantipora, Jammu and Kashmir India.
About the article :
Page no. 126 -138
Discipline : Applied Economics/ Management/ Commerce
Script/language :  Roman/English
Category : Research paper
Abstract
Business Process Reengineering is an innovative technique which is used to induce the radical change in the organization set up. The goal of the technique is to achieve an optimum level of effectiveness and efficiency. The paper strives to study the relationship between BPR and Organizational Structure with special reference to State Bank of India. For the said purpose a sample of 250 employees was chosen randomly from various branches of SBI with J&K State. A self designed instrument was used to collect data from the respondents. The data was analyzed by using Correlation, t-test and regression analysis. The results reveal that there exists a significant relationship between BPR and OS. Also, the modified OS after implementing BPR is more effective and competitive.
Keywords: Business Process Reengineering, organizational Structure, Effectiveness, competitive.


11.Decentralising Bengaluru Urban -The Regional Planning way

Author / Authors : Priyadarshini Sen
About the author : Priyadarshini Sen is Lecturer at DumDum Motijheel College, Kolkata,India
About the article :
Page no.139 -148
Discipline : Applied Economics/ Management/ Commerce/Geography
Script/language :  Roman/English
Category : Research paper
Abstract:
The concept of region as a method of classification has evolved though two distinct phases reflecting the economic advance from a simple agrarian economy to a complex industrial system. Regions have been classified in different ways. The first phase was dominated by the concept of formal region defined according to homogeneity, while the second phase saw the development of functional region defined on the basis of functional coherence. We the planners have contradicted our ideologies of maintaining a spread effect of growing cities/poles that would ‘pull up’ the rural extremities; and at the same time try our best to retain the rural ways of life and activities in order to retreat back to our early styles of living. Bengaluru has been inhabited beyond its carrying capacity and planning its decentralization activities to peripheries is no doubt ambitious but raises questions like evacuation issues of the already settled communities.
Keywords: Regional Planning, Metropolis, Social wellbeing, Settlement.

12.Factor Affecting Customer Service in Supply Chain Management of Small and Medium Enterprises: An Empirical Study of Jammu Region

Author / Authors : Sanjeev Lalhotra  and Prof. B.C Sharma
About the author : Sanjeev Lalhotra is Assistant Professor at CTIMIT, Jalandhar. Prof. B.C Sharma is Professor at The Business School, University of Jammu, Jammu India.
About the article :
Page no.149-165
Discipline : Applied Economics/ Management/ Commerce
Script/language :  Roman/English
Category : Research paper
Abstract:
The purpose of the paper is to find out the dimensions of customer service in supply chain management (SCM) of small and medium enterprises of Jammu region. The paper used the empirical analysis in which convenient sampling techniques is used. In which a sample size of 50 has been taken from the business to business firms both in terms of suppliers and customers orientation. After the collection of data the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used to find out the different dimensions of the customer service in the supply chain management of small and medium enterprises. The paper finds different dimensions which help to improve the customer service in supply chain management which includes the customer segmentation, customer relationship, customer service strategy and service quality both in terms of customers and suppliers in business to business chain of the firms. The research is carried out in a small sample size and more over the customer service frame work of only business to business firms were find out which includes only the immediate customers and immediate suppliers of the firms. The propose system is a usable aid for decision making. The paper proposes an original approach to customer service orientation in SCM of small and medium enterprises that will change the decision of investors.
Keywords: Customer services, Supply Chain Management, Small and Medium Enterprises.

13. Effectiveness of Public Distribution System in Jammu & Kashmir

Author / Authors :Ms. Ramandeep Kour
About the author : Ms. Ramandeep Kour is Research Scholar in the Department of Commerce at University of Jammu, Jammu India.
About the article :
Page no.166-178
Discipline : Applied Economics/ Management/ Commerce
Script/language :  Roman/English
Category : Research paper
Abstract :
Public Distribution System (PDS) is a poverty alleviation programme and contributes towards the social welfare of the people. The study by focusing on the effectiveness of the PDS is of immense significance to the policy makers, Government and the Planning department by recognizing the rights of citizens and their entitlements for food grains, would suggest methods of ensuring food security especially among poor sections of the society. It identifies grey areas which would help CAPD officials to streamline the working of FPS so that distributional goals for welfare improvement are implemented and achieved. The PDS department implements the scheme of minimum support price to the producers of wheat, paddy and coarse grains and the distribution of food grains from the central pool. A close watch is kept on the stock and price levels of food grains and efforts are made to ensure their adequate availability at reasonable prices in different parts of the country.
Key words: PDS (Public Distribution System), Fair Price Shop, Social Security, Essential Commodities.

14. Socio-Economic Impacts of Co operative Societies: An Empirical Study


Author / Authors :Md. Ruhul Amin and Mohammed Mahin Uddin
About the author : Md. Ruhul Amin is Assistant professor in the Department of Public Administration at Comilla University, Bangladesh. Mohammed Mahin Uddin is pursuing his Master’s in Social Science from the Department of Public Administration at Comilla University, Bangladesh.
About the article :
Page no.179-193
Discipline : Applied Economics/ Management/ Commerce
Script/language :  English/Roman
Category : Research paper
Abstract:
A Co-operative is a unique form of business used by people and businesses for their mutual benefit. Cooperatives are community-based, rooted in democracy, flexible, and have participatory involvement, which makes them well suited for economic development. An economy based on one form of business organization alone is neither desirable nor possible in modern times. To justify their existence and fulfil their purpose, cooperatives must make a significant and unique contribution to solving some of the massive problems facing mankind today. This paper examines the role of cooperative societies in economic development. The aim is to investigate the ways in which cooperatives can act as agents towards sustainable community development.
Keywords: Co-operative, Development, Society, Constrains, Constitution, Comilla.


15.Rural Green Marketing: Challenges and Opportunities in India


Author / Authors : Indal Kumar
About the author : Indal Kumar is PhD Scholar at NGBU, Allahabad India.
About the article :
Page no.194-203
Discipline : Applied Economics/ Management/ Commerce
Script/language :  English/Roman
Category : Research paper
Abstract
This study has been conducted on the basis of green marketing challenges and opportunities in rural India. Even though no consumer product has a zero effect on the environment in production the requisites green product and environmental product are used commonly to depict those that attempt to save from harm or improve the natural environment by conserving energy and/or resources and sinking or eliminating use of toxic agents, pollution, and waste .Green marketing is the marketing of products or services that are hypothetically supposed to be environmentally safe. This thought has enabled for the re-marketing and packaging of existing products which formerly based to such strategy. Moreover, the development of Green marketing has opened the door of opportunity for companies to co-brand their products into divide line, lauding the green-friendliness of some while ignoring that of others. Such Marketing process will be explained as a direct result run in the minds of the Rural Consumer. As a result of this markets have increased their rate of positioning and targeting of rural consumers who are nervous about the environment. These same consumers through their anxiety are developing in integrating environmental issues into their purchasing decisions through their combination into the process and satisfied of the marketing strategy for whatever product may be required for rural consumers. This paper explains how markets have enlarged their opportunities of green marketing in rural India and why companies are adopting future of green marketing. This paper identifies challenges which are important to keep away from green marketing myopia and explain the innovative technique of green marketing in rural India.
Keywords: Rural Green Product, Environmentally safe of rural market, opportunities and challenges of Green Marketing.


Education

16.  Student’s classroom participation in English language teaching: The case of Gozamen General Secondary School in Grade 10-A

Author / Authors : Atalay Mesfin Aneteneh
About the author : Atalay Mesfin Aneteneh - Debremarkos College of teachers’ education Aesthetics and physical education, Department Debremarkos, Ethiopia.
About the article :
Page no. 204-217
Discipline : Education
Script/language :  Roman/ English
Category : Research paper/Action research
Abstract
During my teaching practice at this school, I was placed to teach in lower level grades in their class room participation, in grade 10A. At the school there were four grade10 sections, but I performed my practicum in a class which had 47 learners, 23 boys and 24 girls. During my practice the main area that I taught was English and I didn’t have minor area since I was a Pdsc/English student, how could I find ways to help twelve learners in grade 10A at Gozamen General Secondary school to improve their participation during English lesson? I began my action in the week beginning June 17. I encouraged the learners to participate so that they would be able to understand the meaning of the pictures which I showed them. This action worked for five out of twelve learners who participated during my lesson presentation. On this action seven learners did not take part in the activity. Some learners gave different reasons- that they were unable to do the running or the jumping activities because they were sick. But it was a good trial.
Keywords: English, Teaching Elementary, Training, Action research.