About this issue: This issue of Socrates has been divided into six sections. The first Section of this issue, Art, Culture and Literature, contains scholarly articles from English language and Literature, Hindi literature and Persian literature. A serious question raising an article of National and International importance has also been included in this section under the title, Safeguard the cultural Heritage of Ladakh.

The second section of this issue of Socrates, American History, contains an article that investigates, why Lieutenant Colonel Custer met with defeat in order to take the Black Hills?

The third section of this issue of Socrates, Media Studies, contains an article that aims to provide a theoretical framework of public television networks in western countries pointing to the pertaining relationships with their political systems.

The fourth section of this issue of Socrates contains some of the best research papers from the scholarly disciplines of Commerce Management and Economics. The first research paper of this section empirically measures employee satisfaction in key areas.

The fifth section of this issue represents the scholarly disciplines of Law and Politics. The first article analyses the socio-political movement for the establishment of democracy in Nepal. The second article analyses the Industrial dispute act and its impact on the Industrial development in India.

The sixth section contains two general articles. The first article reflects the life of a great Sufi Saint Shah Kazim Qalander. The second article highlights the views of authors on various themes.

Highlights of this issue of Socrates

Safeguard the Cultural Heritage of Ladakh


Cultural and natural heritage is among the priceless and irreplaceable assets, not only of each nation, but of humanity as a whole. The loss, through deterioration or disappearance, of any of these most prized assets constitutes an impoverishment of heritage of all the people of the world. It tells us about the traditions, the beliefs and the achievements of a country and its people. Tourism is concentrated in the predominantly Buddhist settlements of the Indus Valley, of which the ancient capital and trading center of Leh. It is a land of rich culture, traditional knowledge and natural wonders. The strength of locals to tolerate the geographical and climatic extremities often leaves the visitors overcome with amazement. Visitors come to see a preindustrial culture, tour the Buddhist monasteries, and take in the dramatic mountain vistas. Over the years, Ladakh has gained popularity as a unique tourist destination. Mass tourism has acted as a powerful catalyst for change that is extremely challenging. Tourism has an enormous influence on the local economy, ecology and Society. The tourism economy is centered around Leh, and very little of the economic benefit of tourism accrues to the more than 90 percent of Ladakhis who live outside of this area. Within Leh the handful of Ladakhis who own large hotels benefit disproportionately. The openness and friendliness that Ladakhis have traditionally shown to visitors has been eroded by the commercialization of their culture and their understandable resentment toward the invading crowds. Theft, virtually unknown in traditional Ladakhi society, is now a common complaint among urban tourists and trekkers alike, and children now plague visitors for handouts. In the past few years, this unique culture has suffered great losses and indigenous communities, have included themselves in the fold of unchecked globalization, further damaging their cultural wealth. Tourism industry is crucial for Ladakh as a source of livelihood at the same time; it is posing a colossal threat to its cultural and environment legacy. No government or non-government organization can contribute to the conservation of the society without the participation of local communities.

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