SOCRATES VOL 1 NO 1 (2013): ISSUE – YEAR 2013

About this Issue: This issue of SOCRATES covers research papers from Anthropology, Environmental-science, Public-administration, Political-science, and Philosophy, Hindi literature, Persian Literature, and some of the best works from the pen of renowned poets and scholars.

We at SOCRATES are focused on expanding our scope and consolidating our position in both conceptual development and practical application with special emphasis on social issues.

Our motive is to promote research as research is an essential part of higher learning. Research is generally undertaken so as to find the answers of those problems which are not easy or readily available to them. It helps the individuals to find out the solution or answer of any question in a systematic manner based on scientific investigation of those problems. Research always adds something to emerging stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the aid of observation, comparison, study and experiment.

We at SOCRATES believe that India cannot aspire to a future as an advanced society without cultivating large numbers of original thinkers and researchers to inspire new generation. Our mission behind introducing and initiating this journal is to motivate Scholars who have the willingness to Produce and publish quality research and discuss his/her original research, thoughts and ideas. We strongly believe in the concept of connected academic world. Thus we have indexed our journal at some of the best citation centers.

Highlights of this issue

Electoral Reforms in India


The elections and political parties are necessary ingredients of democratic governance. Elections are a necessary condition of representative democracy. In representative democracy citizens participate in politics primarily by choosing political authorities in competitive elections. Elections, hence, are a necessary and crucial instrument to make democracy work. In India, free and fair elections are held at regular intervals as per guidelines of the constitution and the Election Commission. To make them free of flaws it is essential to reform them from time to time. Electoral reform means introducing fair electoral systems for conducting fair elections. It also rejuvenates the existing systems to enhance and increase the efficiency of the same. Following the demands of electoral reforms several committees were being set up. Some of the measures like reduction of voting age and antidefection law are appreciable but there are other vital areas in election field completely neglected. This paper will evaluate about different attempts made for electoral reforms in India. Different challenges before the Election Commission are also been discussed, also how it can be made effective as suggested by Commission in India will be presented. A comparative analysis with other democratic countries like U.S.A and U.K. is added to it.

Women Empowerment in Modern India


For centuries women were not treated equal to men in many ways. They were not allowed to own property, they did not have a Share in the property of their parents, they had no voting rights, and they had no freedom to choose their work or job and so on. Gender inequality has been part and parcel of an accepted male-dominated Indian society throughout history. Women were expected to be bound to the house, while men went out and worked. This division of labor was one of the major reasons why certain evils like ‘Sati Pratha’, ‘PardahSystem’, ‘Child Marriage’, ‘Dowry System’, etc. took birth in our society. The traditional Indian mentality assumes that the place of women is mainly concentrated to the household activities like kitchen work and upbringing of the children. There is systematic discrimination against women economically, socially, politically and culturally more so, in India. These discriminations & disabilities are practiced at all levels day in & day out.

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