S O C R A T E S https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES <h4><strong>A very warm Welcome to <em>SOCRATES</em> !!</strong></h4> <div style="text-align: justify;">SOCRATES is an international, multi-disciplinary refereed and indexed scholarly journal.</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">This journal appears quarterly in English.</div> <div style="text-align: justify;"><strong>SOCRATES is available in both Print and On-line versions:</strong></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ Printed Version (ISSN 2347-2146): <a title="Click here" href="https://socratesjournal.com/printversion/">Format: Print Book</a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ Online Version (ISSN 2347-6869): Format: Published online (PDF)</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ Journal Frequency: <a title="Click here" href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Publication-Schedule">Published quarterly in March-June-September and December i.e. Four Issues in a year.</a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ Script/Language of the Journal: British English</div> <div style="text-align: justify;"><strong>❊ Broad Subject Category: Social Science/Arts and Humanities</strong></div> <div style="text-align: justify;"><strong>❊ Subjects/Disciplines Covered: Multidisciplinary</strong></div> <div><strong>1. <a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/English-literature"><span class="toctext">English literature</span></a></strong></div> <div><strong>2. <a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Philosophy" rel="noopener">Philosophy</a></strong></div> <div><strong>3. </strong><a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Political-Science" rel="noopener"><strong>Political Science (including Public-Administration/Public-Management/Governance)</strong></a></div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ <a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/about/subscriptions">SOCRATES is available for Subscription.</a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">☰<a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Journal-History" rel="noopener"> Editorial policies revised on May 2, 2018</a></div> <h4><strong>Mission:</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;">SOCRATES aspires to be one of the Worlds leading Journal Publishing innovative, responsive and high-quality Research Papers. Socrates is a serious, scholarly publication that is peer-reviewed and indexed, and we only accept quality manuscripts to publish in this international journal.Our mission behind introducing and initiating this journal is to motivate Scholars who have the willingness to Produce and publish quality research and discuss his/her original research, thoughts and ideas. We strongly believe in the concept of a connected academic world of researchers. Thus, we have indexed our journal at some of the best citation centres.</p> <h4><strong>Current Status of the Journal:</strong></h4> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ The Journal Socrates is relatively young yet well-known around the Globe.</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ SOCRATES has been recognised as one of the major international journals worldwide. One and only Journal from Asia and the Pacific which has been included in <a href="http://www.e-journals.org/past.shtml" rel="noopener">E-journals.org</a>. E-Journals.org is the most honoured and trusted source which dates back to Tim Berners-Lee (inventor of the World Wide Web).</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ <a href="https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/SOCRATESJOURNAL">Produced as </a>par<a href="https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/SOCRATESJOURNAL"> of the Harvard Dataverse Network.</a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ GLOBAL IMPACT FACTOR - <a href="http://globalimpactfactor.com/socrates/" rel="noopener">2013 0.512 | 2014 0.611 | 2015 0.765&nbsp;</a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ Index Copernicus: ICV 2013: 4.17 | <a href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/details?jmlId=24780654&amp;org=SOCRATES,p24780654,3.html" rel="noopener">ICV 2014: 69.00 | ICV 2015: 73.13 | ICV 2016: <span class="fs-journal-icv-ibox-title ng-binding ng-scope">59.45</span></a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ SOCRATES is under evaluation in Science Citation Index (SCI), ISI Web of Knowledge and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) SOCRATES is under evaluation in SCOPUS SOCRATES is under evolution for inclusion in "The Philosopher’s Index" (The Most Authoritative Online Bibliography in Philosophy).</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ SOCRATES is a REGISTERED JOURNAL FOR INDEXING (METADATA HARVESTING) Base URL for SOCRATES Repository: OAI-PMH version is 2.0 <strong><em>https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/oai</em>&nbsp;</strong>Registered with world's topmost directories and databases.</div> <h4><strong>Other Units/projects of the Journal:</strong></h4> <div style="text-align: left;">❊ <a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Book-Reviews">SOCRATES: BOOK REVIEWS</a></div> <div style="text-align: left;">❊ <a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Submit-Reports" rel="noopener">Publication of Reports as an Issue or as part of an issue.</a></div> <div style="text-align: left;">❊ <a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Submit-Proposal">Publication of Special issues based on Scholarly events.</a></div> <div style="text-align: left;">❊ <a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Organize-Conferences">Socrates: Global Conferences</a></div> en-US <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Revised Copyright/CC license that applies to all the articles published after 05-02-2017</strong></h4> <div style="text-align: justify;">Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</div> <div style="text-align: justify;"><img src="/public/site/images/socratesjournal/by-nc1.png"></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">Author(s) will retain all the Copyright of their published article. 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Research Papers published in SOCRATES after 05-02-2017 are licensed under an Attribution -Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</div> <div style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Date of revision: Creative common license: 05-02-2017</strong></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</div> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Copyright/CC license that applies to all the articles published before 05-02-2017</strong></h4> <div style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Attribution -NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)</strong> <p><strong><img src="/public/site/images/socratesjournal/cc-by-nc-nd.png"></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Author(s) will retain all the right except commercial and re-publishing rights. In the case of re-publishing, they will have to obtain written permission from the journal. Additional licensing agreements (Creative Commons licenses) grants rights to readers to copy, distribute, display and perform the work as long as you give the original author(s) credit, they can not use the works for commercial purposes and are not allowed to alter, transform, or build upon the work. For any reuse or distribution, readers and users must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holders. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the authors’ rights. To view a copy of this license, visit <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/</a> or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.</p> <p>Research Papers published in SOCRATES are licensed under an Attribution -NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)</p> </div> editor@socratesjournal.com (Saurabh Chandra) admin@socratesjournal.com (SOCRATES TECH. SUPPORT) Wed, 20 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.0.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Pains of Colonialism https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/306 <p style="text-align: center;">The condition of a native is a <em>nervous condition</em>.</p> <p style="text-align: right;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (From the introduction to Fanon’s <em>The Wretched of the Earth)</em></p> <p style="text-align: left;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Tsitsi Dangarembga is an African novelist and filmmaker from Zimbabwe. Nervous Conditions (1988) was her first novella after her 1987 play She No Longer Weeps. Her works usually have a feminist purview. However, the particular work would be scrutinized from a colonial lens.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; As a student of comparative literature, I found this text worthy of study. It gave me an insight into a completely different culture from mine. Africa and India share many similarities in relation to tribal culture, orature and community-based living. Also, since we both were co-sufferers in our shared struggle against colonialism, therefore this piece was found apt to be taken up. It is a quest to find out how their colonial experience differed from ours by deeply analyzing the text. The stance taken would be of the </em>twenty-first century<em> post-colonial Indian student.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00001.8</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Walia Saloni ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/306 Wed, 20 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Displaced Identities of Transnational Migrants in Salman Rushdie’sThe Ground beneath Her Feet https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/350 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>The postcolonial era has manifested its </em>specialty<em> in the evolution of postmodern discourses which have cross-cultural effects on the contemporary society. The new era of globalization has churned the nuances of transnational migration which is essentially a postcolonial factor. Migration of indigenous populations to various countries around the globe induces a new set of social expectation, cultural values and beliefs. This new cultural environment postulates a craving for the past life which is effectively dealt with in Salman Rushdie’s works of art. The prospects of religious conversion and its counter effects are also elaborated by Rushdie in his novel, The Ground Beneath Her Feet. This paper highlights Rushdie’s successful attempt in blurring the frontiers of the East and the West. Migrancy and cultural displacements form the strength of Rushdie’s novels and he highlights his displaced migrants as decentered beings, unable to free themselves from the cultural pull.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00002.X</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Vahitha S ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/350 Wed, 20 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Colonialism, Power and Resistance in Zadie Smith’s White Teeth https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/318 <p style="text-align: justify;">This essay attempts to analyze the colonial histories depicted in Zadie Smith's White Teeth by considering them alongside Michel Foucault's lectures on biopolitics. It also aims to contextualize some of the historical threads in the text in order to highlight some of the ways that power and resistance are performed in the fictional narrative. This will uncover important themes in White Teeth that help to identify how apparatuses of power and resistance function in the narrative, linking colonial history with contemporary multiculturalism.</p> <p><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00003.1</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ciyiltepe Tan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/318 Wed, 20 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Multiculturalism https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/330 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Reclaiming for one’s root doesn’t state that one has no root. As long as one has roots intact, one survives; and if one is uprooted or one’s roots are undiscovered, one dies. But they try their best to grow new roots amidst adverse circumstances to face reality. Cut off from cultural roots, they adopt a quest for self. In the contemporary literary criticism, roots and multiculturalism are the topics, dealt in by many novelists of repute in postcolonial literature. It can be observed that nowadays people are not only conscious of their own culture and tradition but claim superiority of their own over other’s culture. The present paper thus aims to present the cultural ambivalence that Chinua Achebe recorded in his novels Things Fall Apart and No Longer At Ease. When the Europeans came to colonize Africa, they bring with them their own culture. Achebe, in these two </em>novels<em> portrays the plight of the Nigerian people they face due to the mixing of the two different cultures. He draws both the </em>pre colonial<em> and colonial period with their both negative and positive sides. His No Longer at Ease is on corruption, which Achebe believes is brought by the Europeans to Africa. And his Things Fall Apart criticizes Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness where Conrad documented that civilization of Africa took place during the time of colonial period. Achebe’s protagonists were able to retain a sense of their pre-colonial glory, history considerably, </em>however<em> affected the culture and heritage in the ancient aroma. But in Africa, the ‘falcon could not hear the falconer and the </em>center<em> could not hold’ and eventually things did fall apart. Hence, the paper is also an attempt to examine the misrecognition of the Nigerian Culture by the dominating Europeans.</em></p> <p><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00004.3</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Trishna Devi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/330 Wed, 20 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Causeway to the Cosways https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/319 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Jean Rhys’ Wide Sargasso Sea has usually been regarded as a postcolonial offset to its 19th century ‘Grand Narrative’ – Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre. Both the texts have been by and large examined by critics as texts employing the format of the Bildungsroman, also popularly known as the ‘coming-of-age’ novel. Rhys’ work, through the account of Antoinette Cosway’s life, subverts this typically linear, male-centric genre, to formulate what we may phrase as the Anti- or Reverse- Bildungsroman. In conjunction with the previous perspective, this paper shall explore how Wide Sargasso Sea overturns even the Reverse-Bildungsroman at the end of the novel to set up the groundwork for yet another sub-genre, the Kunstlerroman, or the novel that documents the formation of an artist, and the simultaneous subversion of the associated tenet of the ‘double’ in Victorian Sensation formula, when Antoinette paradoxically gains a form of identity, an autonomy over her own life, and appropriates active agency, much like an artist, through madness, and ultimately, death.</em></p> <p><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00005.5</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Biswas Isha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/319 Wed, 20 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Resurrecting the Africa https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/347 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>The given poem serves </em>multitude<em> of purposes while delineating a sea change in the outlook of the people of Africa which took place during pre and postcolonial times. It manifests the </em>barbarious<em>, ruthless and aggressively hostile treatment meted out to the natives by the colonizers, with not an iota of mercy in their eyes apart from defaming and eroding the culture and mores of the colonised. Behaving as a mirror, the poem reflects how wrong, unjustified and undesirable they were who failed to understand the pagan nature and simple living of the African tribes. Eventually, the Africans did manage to get the ‘Uhuru’ or Freedom from the Whites by retaliating through Mau-Mau rebellion and thus they celebrate their independence through the crescendo of the very peculiar trumpet, drum and dance.</em></p> <p><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00006.7</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ghani Abdul Hasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/347 Wed, 20 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000