S O C R A T E S https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES <h4><strong><span style="color: #ffd700;">A very warm Welcome to SOCRATES !!</span></strong></h4> <div style="text-align: justify;">SOCRATES is an international, multi-disciplinary refereed and indexed scholarly journal.</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">This journal appears quarterly in English.</div> <div style="text-align: justify;"><strong>SOCRATES is available in both Print and On-line versions:</strong></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ Printed Version (ISSN 2347-2146): <a title="Click here" href="https://socratesjournal.com/printversion/">Format: Print Book</a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ Online Version (ISSN 2347-6869): Format: Published online (PDF)</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ Journal Frequency: <a title="Click here" href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Publication-Schedule">Published quarterly in March-June-September and December i.e. Four Issues in a year.</a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ Script/Language of the Journal: British English</div> <div style="text-align: justify;"><strong>❊ Broad Subject Category: Social Science/Arts and Humanities</strong></div> <div style="text-align: justify;"><strong>❊ Subjects/Disciplines Covered: Multidisciplinary</strong></div> <div><strong>1. <a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/English-literature"><span class="toctext">English literature</span></a></strong></div> <div><strong>2. <a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Philosophy" rel="noopener">Philosophy</a></strong></div> <div><strong>3. </strong><a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Political-Science" rel="noopener"><strong>Political Science (including Public-Administration/Public-Management/Governance)</strong></a></div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ <a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/about/subscriptions">SOCRATES is available for Subscription.</a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">☰<a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Journal-History" rel="noopener"> Editorial policies revised on May 2, 2018</a></div> <h4><strong><span style="color: #ffd700;">Mission:</span></strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;">SOCRATES aspires to be one of the Worlds leading Journal Publishing innovative, responsive and high-quality Research Papers. Socrates is a serious, scholarly publication that is peer-reviewed and indexed, and we only accept quality manuscripts to publish in this international journal.Our mission behind introducing and initiating this journal is to motivate Scholars who have the willingness to Produce and publish quality research and discuss his/her original research, thoughts and ideas. We strongly believe in the concept of a connected academic world of researchers. Thus, we have indexed our journal at some of the best citation centres.</p> <h4><strong><span style="color: #ffd700;">Current Status of the Journal:</span></strong></h4> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ The Journal Socrates is relatively young yet well-known around the Globe.</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ SOCRATES has been recognised as one of the major international journals worldwide. One and only Journal from Asia and the Pacific which has been included in <a href="http://www.e-journals.org/past.shtml" rel="noopener">E-journals.org</a>. E-Journals.org is the most honoured and trusted source which dates back to Tim Berners-Lee (inventor of the World Wide Web).</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ <a href="https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/SOCRATESJOURNAL">Produced as </a>par<a href="https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/SOCRATESJOURNAL"> of the Harvard Dataverse Network.</a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ GLOBAL IMPACT FACTOR - <a href="http://globalimpactfactor.com/socrates/" rel="noopener">2013 0.512 | 2014 0.611 | 2015 0.765&nbsp;</a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ Index Copernicus: ICV 2013: 4.17 | <a href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/details?jmlId=24780654&amp;org=SOCRATES,p24780654,3.html" rel="noopener">ICV 2014: 69.00 | ICV 2015: 73.13 | ICV 2016: <span class="fs-journal-icv-ibox-title ng-binding ng-scope">59.45</span></a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ SOCRATES is under evaluation in Science Citation Index (SCI), ISI Web of Knowledge and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) SOCRATES is under evaluation in SCOPUS SOCRATES is under evolution for inclusion in "The Philosopher’s Index" (The Most Authoritative Online Bibliography in Philosophy).</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">❊ SOCRATES is a REGISTERED JOURNAL FOR INDEXING (METADATA HARVESTING) Base URL for SOCRATES Repository: OAI-PMH version is 2.0 <strong><em>https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/oai</em>&nbsp;</strong>Registered with world's topmost directories and databases.</div> <h4><strong><span style="color: #ffd700;">Other Units/projects of the Journal:</span></strong></h4> <div style="text-align: left;">❊ <a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Book-Reviews">SOCRATES: BOOK REVIEWS</a></div> <div style="text-align: left;">❊ <a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Submit-Reports" rel="noopener">Publication of Reports as an Issue or as part of an issue.</a></div> <div style="text-align: left;">❊ <a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Submit-Proposal">Publication of Special issues based on Scholarly events.</a></div> <div style="text-align: left;">❊ <a href="https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/Organize-Conferences">Socrates: Global Conferences</a></div> SOCRATES : SCHOLARLY RESEARCH JOURNAL en-US S O C R A T E S 2347-2146 <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Revised Copyright/CC license that applies to all the articles published after 05-02-2017</strong></h4> <div style="text-align: justify;">Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</div> <div style="text-align: justify;"><img src="/public/site/images/socratesjournal/by-nc1.png"></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">Author(s) will retain all the Copyright of their published article. In the case of re-publishing, they will have to obtain written permission from the journal. Additional licensing agreements (Creative Commons licenses) grants rights to readers to Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material.The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. <div style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</div> <div id="deed-conditions" style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Under the following terms:</strong></div> <strong>▸ Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<strong>▸ </strong><strong>NonCommercial</strong> — You may not use the material for <a id="commercial_purposes_popup" class="helpLink" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/">commercial purposes</a>.<strong>▸ No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or <a id="technological_measures_popup" class="helpLink" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the authors’ rights. To view a copy of this license, visit <a title="Click Here" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" data-blogger-escaped-target="_blank">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/</a> or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. Research Papers published in SOCRATES after 05-02-2017 are licensed under an Attribution -Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</div> <div style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Date of revision: Creative common license: 05-02-2017</strong></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</div> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Copyright/CC license that applies to all the articles published before 05-02-2017</strong></h4> <div style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Attribution -NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)</strong> <p><strong><img src="/public/site/images/socratesjournal/cc-by-nc-nd.png"></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Author(s) will retain all the right except commercial and re-publishing rights. In the case of re-publishing, they will have to obtain written permission from the journal. Additional licensing agreements (Creative Commons licenses) grants rights to readers to copy, distribute, display and perform the work as long as you give the original author(s) credit, they can not use the works for commercial purposes and are not allowed to alter, transform, or build upon the work. For any reuse or distribution, readers and users must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holders. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the authors’ rights. To view a copy of this license, visit <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/</a> or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.</p> <p>Research Papers published in SOCRATES are licensed under an Attribution -NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)</p> </div> Dis/Locating Power and Knowledge in Media Discourse https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/298 <p><em>The construction of ‘otherness’ in media discourse is meant to legitimize and naturalize the reproduction of the ideology of opposition that widens the gap between the identification of “Self” and “Other”. This identification relies mostly on knowledge and its relation to power that could be detected in discourses where voices interact with one another to assert a fixed hegemonic conception of the Self in contrast to the Other. In this sense, the production of knowledge in media discourse remains subject to the interference of different authoritative institutions that represent the position of power through instilling and presenting the ideology of this regime as the taken-for-granted truth. Being annexed to power, </em>truth<em> is perceived as having the quality of credibility that lends credence to its producers’ claim. What strengthens and bridges more effectively the power and knowledge relation is the fact that these discourses are institutionalized by authoritative systems. This fact engenders the possibility that the intellectuals themselves are institutionalized and that their role in societies is restricted. This fact calls for the urgent need of giving space for the subaltern to speak for themselves and deconstruct the ideologies that are produced by the dominant groups.</em></p> <p><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2017.00017.6</strong></p> Sanhaji Mounir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-04-20 2018-04-20 5 3 and 4 1 11 Conceptualization of Scientart https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/305 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Scientart</em><em> might be defined as an interaction between the worlds of art and science. Three types of these interactions might be considered: </em><em>artistically-inclined scientific activities,</em> <em>science-minded artistic activities, and</em><em> intertwined artistic and scientific activities</em><em>.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>In this conceptualization </em><em>different disciplines such as physics, metaphysics, economics, and medicine could be counted as science. Furthermore, we consider literature as art.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>The artistically-inclined science can be seen in scientists leading an art program, such as what happened in the</em><em> artists' program to document NASA missions.</em><em> Science-minded art could be regarded in </em><em>the artworks include scientific themes. These artworks might be inspired by science or inspire scientists.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>An instant of intertwined artistic and scientific activities could be seen in the occult treatises describe philosophical subjects and rational issues in fictions.</em></p> <p><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2017.00018.8</strong></p> Nadia Maftouni ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-04-20 2018-04-20 5 3 and 4 12 18 The Concept of Radif and Three Paradigms of Persian Music in Contemporary Iran https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/327 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>From 30 years ago onwards, Persian music, under the influence of Western philosophy, has been Westernised in the sense that some elements of Western philosophy have strongly impacted Persian music. In this paper, I intend to propose a critical leap in Persian music which leads to the creation of three different paradigms in Persian music. Philosophically, Persian music can be seen from three perspectives: Transcendental, Secular and Nominalistic. The Transcendental view considers Persian music as something that is related to what comes from high up, i.e. God. In this paradigm, the concept of Radif is a very important element which has a high place in the history of Persian music. Contrarily, the Secular view focuses on the mundane feature of Persian music in the sense that musicians care to produce melodies by humans and for humans. If Transcendentalists consider music as “less is more,” Secularists treat it as “less is bore.” However, the Nominalistic view tries to leave the two previous paradigms behind by not considering any essence for music, and thus focuses on the contextual feature of music. I conclude by saying that we are now dealing with different “Persian musics” rather than “a Persian music”.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2017.00019.X</strong></p> Dabbagh Hossein ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-04-20 2018-04-20 5 3 and 4 19 28 On the Intractable ontology of Species https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/308 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>‘Species’ is a tricky, but unavoidable term which makes biologists disagree with each other in their attempts to define it. The disagreement actually stems from the intractable ontological nature of species. Not only biologists but also philosophers are engaged in the endeavour to understand species. The former attempt to define species while the latter try to determine its ontology. As a result, antinomies such as monism/pluralism or realism/antirealism come into the picture. Our sense of ‘intractability’ grows along with the increasing debate between these antinomies. The present paper sketches out the intractable nature of species through a historical account of the species problem. Through this paper, we have tried to decipher a ‘common thread’ that, perhaps, binds all our ideas of species together. This has been arrived at after noticing that when we confront the term species we all know what it refers to but we are confused when it comes to answering the question ‘what it means’.</em></p> <p><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2017.00020.6</strong></p> Gopalakrishnan Alikkal Hareesh C Upendra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-04-20 2018-04-20 5 3 and 4 29 39 ἐπιλήθομαι (epilelesthai) and λήθη (lethe) https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/301 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Scholars H. N. Fowler, R. Waterfield, J. McDowell, D. Davidson and J. M. Cooper translate both ἐπιλήθομαι (epilelesthai) and λήθη (lethe) into “forgetting”. Yet it is problematic, as they designate two different meanings of forgetting Only J. C. B. Gosling, in his translation of Philebus, translates λήθηinto “oblivion” and ἐπιλήθομαι into forgetting respectively. However, he does not explain why the difference matters. This paper aims at explaining the ambiguous meaning of forgetting in Meno, Phaedo, Theaetetus and Philebus. The one hand, ἐπιλήθομαι (epilelesthai) means the loss of memory in our ordinary life. On the other hand, λήθη (lethe) means the loss of memory before-life or before we are born. I conclude by drawing attention to Paul Ricoeur’s critical examination of Plato’s philosophy of forgetting that he fails to provide an effective resolution to the ordinary forgetting as an attack on the reliability of memory.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2017.00021.8</strong></p> Tang Man-to ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-04-20 2018-04-20 5 3 and 4 40 57 Is quantum medium a metaphysical continuum? https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/333 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Quantum medium is a metaphysical continuum fabric full of primal energy. This energy contains information of the existence in all its manifestations, the metaphysical continuum that makes </em><em>a quantum</em><em> medium display in the “real” embedded in the First Thinker’s thought. Quantum medium is expressed in a fractal way; that is to say that the information of thoughts is multiplied infinitesimally, and so it makes the manifestation of existence infinite.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2017.00022.X</strong></p> Polisena Yaccuzzi Viviana ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-04-20 2018-04-20 5 3 and 4 58 63 Time in the ontology of Cornelius Castoriadis https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/316 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>We can locate the problematic of time within three philosophical questions, which respectively designate three central areas of philosophical reflection and contemplation. </em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>These are:</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>1) The ontological question, i.e. 'what is being?'</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>2) The epistemological question, i.e. 'what can we know with certainty?'</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>3) The existential question, i.e. 'what is the meaning of existence?'</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>These three questions, which are philosophical, but also scientific and political, as they underline the political and moral question of truth and justice, arising from the phenomenon of time, the irreversible constant flow of phenomena that undermines every claim to absolute knowledge. The purpose of this essay is to illuminate the importance of time for philosophical thought and, more generally, for human social and psychical life, in the context of the ontology of Cornelius Castoriadis. Castoriadis, who asserted that&nbsp;“being is time – and not in the horizon of time”, correlated history to society and being to temporality within the social-historical stratum, the ontological plane created by human existence, where “existence is signification”. Time is interpreted as the creation and destruction of forms in a magmatic, layered with a non-regular stratification, reality, where the social-historical manifests as the creation of collective human activity, in the manner of social imaginary significations. This notion of temporality is accompanied by a profound criticism of traditional rationalistic philosophy, to which Castoriadis assigns the name ‘ensemblistic/identitary’, that highlights the necessity of a new, magmatic ontology, based on the primacy of time.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2017.00023.1</strong></p> Alexandros Schismenos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-04-20 2018-04-20 5 3 and 4 64 81 Approach to the thought of Fernando Vallejo through the reading of 'El Desbarrancadero' https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/334 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>The article aims to interpret (and to some extent comment on) some of Fernando Vallejo's thoughts contained in his novel El Desbarrancadero. The Colombian author's text includes deep reflections on essential issues of human existence and their fundamental circumstances.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Throughout the pages of El Desbarrancadero, ideas about life are exposed in their most critical aspect, masterfully described by Vallejo. They are subjects that often –though they are all well-known– are nevertheless little commented, due to what some might call a certain conceptual hardness and </em>rigor<em>.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>The author of Medellín is characterized by his freedom in saying what he thinks. That frankness (after all, courage), and that depth and literary beauty at the same time, make El Desbarrancadero one of the most important philosophical novels ever written in Spanish.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Abstracto:</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>El artículo pretende interpretar (y en alguna medida comentar) los pensamientos de Fernando Vallejo contenidos en su novela El Desba-rrancadero. El texto del autor colombiano incluye reflexiones profundas sobre temas esenciales de&nbsp; la existencia humana y de sus circunstancias fundamentales.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>A lo largo de las páginas de El desbarrancadero se van exponiendo ideas sobre la vida en su aspecto más crítico, descritas de forma magistral por Vallejo. Son temas que a menudo&nbsp; –pese a ser&nbsp; son de todos conocidos­– son sin embargo poco comentados, debido a lo que algunos podrían llamar una cierta dureza y rigor conceptuales.&nbsp;&nbsp;</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Caracteriza al autor el Medellín su libertad al decir lo que piensa. Esa franqueza (al cabo, valentía), y esa profundidad y la vez belleza literarias, hacen de El Desbarrancadero una de las más importantes novelas “de ideas” que se han escrito en lengua castellana.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Notes:</strong></p> <div style="text-align: justify;">1. Article Language="Primarily Spanish, with abstract in English and Spanish"</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">2. Article title in Spanish : Aproximación al pensamiento de Fernando Vallejo a través de la lectura de ‘El Desbarrancadero’</div> <div style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</div> <div style="text-align: justify;"><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2017.00024.3</strong></div> <div style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</div> Ricart Miquel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-04-20 2018-04-20 5 3 and 4 82 87 E-Governance in the Age of Globalization https://www.socratesjournal.com/index.php/SOCRATES/article/view/321 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>The study deals with the revolution of information technology in the functioning of government services in the country. Thinking about globalization, we visualize the application of technology and more specifically Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to reduce the differences in different corners of the economy and make the differentiated world into a truly integrated global village. Utilization of technology in government services has gathered endurance called as electronic governance. The old notion of administration seems to become obsolete as the government at central, state and at local levels are facing challenges posed by increased demand for better quality of governance. Electronic-governance has already been acknowledged as indispensable strength to a revolutionary development in standard, coherence, and efficacy of government. With the massive growth in population, low rate of literacy, cultural differences and above all, profound destitution has created difficulties in running the administration by the government of India. So, nothing was left but a centralized strategy driven by ICT as it seems to bring more transparency and increased accountability. Undoubtedly, in the present scenario, the progress of any government relies on the application of electronic governance. In fact, the success of a government can be judged by the reach of electronic governance to its population. Based on secondary data this study </em>enquires<em> into the challenges raised in front of the Government of India (GOI) to implement this system usefully, restrain challenges to implement it successfully, find out the potential opportunities available and examine the challenges encountered by it.&nbsp;</em><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>DOI: 10.5958/2347-6869.2017.00025.5</strong></p> Roy Manas ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-04-20 2018-04-20 5 3 and 4 88 103